Pseudoprimes, Poker and Remote Coin Tossing
In this chapter we take a closer look at numbers that are not primes, but are tantalizingly close to primes in some respects. Of course, a given number n > 1 is either prime or composite — in other words, n is either “pregnant” with factors or not; there is no third alternative. But nevertheless, it makes sense to define and, as we do in this chapter, discuss such odd entities as pseudoprimes, absolute (or universal) pseudoprimes and strong pseudoprimes. When talking about extremely large numbers, pseudoprimality is sometimes the only evidence we can go by.
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