Nutrients, Algae and Herbivores — the Paradox of Enrichment Revisited

  • Tom Andersen
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 129)


Lotka (1925) and Volterra (1926) independently developed simple mathematical descriptions of the interaction between predators and their prey. These theories later became the ancestors of a whole family of what is collectively known as Lotka-Volterra models. Elementary ecology text books usually concentrate on the simplest kind of Lotka-Volterra model, where the prey have an unbounded capacity for exponential growth in the absence of predators, and where the predators have an unbounded capacity for killing prey. As noted by May (1975), such a system has certain pathological dynamic properties which are equivalent to the neutral stability of a frictionless pendulum: the system oscillates forever with an amplitude that is determined solely by the initial conditions.


Dilution Rate Algal Biomass Zooplankton Biomass Attraction Basin Internal Equilibrium 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom Andersen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

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