Monoterpene and Isoprene Emission in Norway Spruce Forests

  • Rainer Steinbrecher
  • H. Ziegler
  • G. Eichstädter
  • U. Fehsenfeld
  • R. Gabriel
  • Ch. Kolb
  • R. Rabong
  • R. Schönwitz
  • W. Schürmann
Chapter
Part of the Transport and Chemical Transformation of Pollutants in the Troposphere book series (3373, volume 4)

Summary

The isoprenoids isoprene and monoterpenes are hydrocarbons with important ecological functions. In conifers monoterpenes are synthesised mainly for protection against insects. In a ca. 90 year old Norway spruce stand in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany, and on the Wank mountain near Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, the formation of isoprene and monoterpenes in needles of Picea abies [L.] Karst., the emission into the atmosphere, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of emission and immission, the horizontal and vertical distribution of the source strength in and above the canopy and the fate of isoprenoids in the atmosphere were studied. The work was performed together with meteorologists and air chemists. Controlling factors in both, isoprene emissions and monoterpene emissions from intact needles are leaf temperature and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). On the basis of these two parameters emission factors and emission algorithms were calculated. The sun crown of the trees is the dominating source for isoprenoids in the forest during the physiologically active period of the year. In 1991, 88% of the monoterpens were emitted in July and August. The contribution of the trunk compartment to total forest emission ranges from 1% to 64% and is not clear yet. The contribution of the soil is negligible (3%). The emission pattern and the emission rates of monoterpenes dramatically change after injuring of needles and trunks by opening the resin ducts. The α-pinene fluxes of the forest calculated using the gradient approach and the enclosure technique are similar and indicate that the sun crown of the forest is the main source of the isoprenoids transported in upper air layers. Around noon, however, the gradient approach resulted in deposition of α-pinene, although this compound is emitted from the twigs in large amounts due to high temperature and high solar insulation. At the site the ozone forming potential through photochemical isoprenoid degradation should be of minor importance, since the terpene/NOx ratio in ambient air is mostly < 1 during the day. The interdisciplinary investigations of reactive trace gases released into the atmosphere by Norway spruce ecosystems demonstrate the complexity of the interactions soil, tree, canopy, atmosphere, man and animal.

Keywords

Ozone Bark Eurasia Isoprene Isoprenoids 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Steinbrecher, Dissertation TU-München, Fakultät Chemie, Biologie, Geowissenschaften, 1989.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Schürmann, Dissertation TU-München, Fakultät Chemie, Biologie, Geowissenschaften, 1993.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Steinbrecher, Eichstädter G., Schürmann W., Torres L., Clement B., Simon V., Kotzias D., Daiber R., Van Eijk J., Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 54 (1994) (283–297).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T.J. Ball, in: Zeiger et al. (eds), Stomatal Function, Stanford University Press, California 1987, pp. 445–467.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Riederer, Kurbasik K., Steinbrecher R., Voss A., Trees 3 (1988) (165–172).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Gabriel, Diplomarbeit, Lehrstuhl für Botanik, TU-München, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ch. Kolb, Ch. Diplomarbeit Fachhochschule Isny, 1994.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Eichstädter, Dissertation, TU-München Fakultät Chemie, Biologie, Geowissenschaften, 1993.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Steinbrecher, Karbach I., Nitz S., Ziegler H., in: P.M. Borrell, P. Borrell, T. Cvitas, W. Seiler (eds), Proc. EUROTRAC Symp.’ 92, SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague 1993, pp. 284–288.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Steinbrecher and Rabong, R., in: P.M. Borrell, P. Borrell, T. Cvitaš, W. Seiler (eds), Proc. EUROTRAC Symp.’ 94, SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague 1994, pp. 502–506.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Enders, Dlugi R., Steinbrecher R., Clement B., Daiber R., Eijk v. J., Gäb S., Haziza M., Helas G., Herrman U., Kessel M., Kesselmeier J., Kotzias D., Kourtidis K., Kurth H.-H., McMillen R. T., Roider G., Schürmann W., Torres L., Atmos. Environ. 26A (1992) (171–189).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Ziegler, and Steinbrecher R., in: Rundgespräche der Komission für Ökologie Bd. 8 ‘Klimaforschung in Bayern’, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, 1994, pp. 95–102.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. Schürmann, Ziegler H., Kotzias D., Schönwitz R., Steinbrecher, R., Naturwissenschaften 80 (1993) 276–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    U. Fehsenfeld, Diplomarbeit, Lehrstuhl für Botanik, TU-München, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Eichstädter, Schürmann W., Steinbrecher R., Ziegler H., in: P.M. Borrell, P. Borrell, T. Cvitaš, W. Seiler (eds), Proc. EUROTRAC Symp.’ 92, SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague 1993, pp. 276–282.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.B. Guenther, Zimmerman P.R., Harley P.C., Monson R.K., Fall R., J. Geophys. Res. 98D (1993) 12609–12617.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Guenther A., Hewitt N.C., Erickson D., Fall R., Geron C, Graedel T., Harley P., Klinger L., Lerdau M., McKay W.A., Peirce T., Scholes B., Steinbrecher R., Tallamraju R., Taylor J., Zimmerman P., J. Geophys. Res. 100 DS (1995), 8873–8892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Steinbrecher, Schürmann W., Schreiner A.-M., Ziegler H., in: J. Slanina et al. (eds), Proc. Joint CEC/BIATEX Workshop, General Assessment of Biogenic Emissions and Deposition of Nitrogen Compounds, Sulfur Compounds and Oxidants in Europe., CEC Environmental Research Programme Report 47 (1993) 251-261.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Steinbrecher, in: Baars, H.P., et al. (eds), Proc. TNO/EURASAP Workshop on the Reliability of VOC Emission Databases, TOO Delft X, IMW-TNO Publication P93/040 1993, pp. 89-98.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Steinbrecher, in: in: P.M. Borrell, P. Borrell, T. Cvitas, W. Seiler (eds), Proc. EUROTRAC Symp.’ 94, SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague 1994, pp. 448–455.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Simpson D., Guenther A., Hewitt C.N., Steinbrecher R., J. Geophys. Res. in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rainer Steinbrecher
    • 1
  • H. Ziegler
    • 2
  • G. Eichstädter
    • 2
  • U. Fehsenfeld
    • 1
  • R. Gabriel
    • 2
  • Ch. Kolb
    • 1
  • R. Rabong
    • 1
  • R. Schönwitz
    • 2
  • W. Schürmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Fraunhofer-Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IFU)Garmisch-PartenkirchenGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Botanik und Mikrobiologie der Technischen Universität MünchenMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations