An appealing feature of thermodynamics is that its structure can be derived from conceptually simple “empirical” statements summarizing and generalizing the experience with the behavior of real bodies. From the first and second laws we shall establish the existence and meaning of concepts and assertions like the interconvertibility of work and heat, the energy, the absolute temperature, and the entropy. The proofs elucidate similarities between the two laws. Most of Part II does not need the specific structure of continuous bodies, although for simplicity the derivation is carried only for them. Only one idea to be presented in Part II depends on the structure of continuous bodies — the derivation of Cauchy’s equations of motion.
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