Wildlife Products

  • Harald H. Roth
  • Günter Merz


Apart from the indirect and non-use values of wildlife referred to in Part I, wildlife resources produce a wide variety of important direct economic returns from services and products as shown in Part II. It is not possible in the framework of this book to describe in technical detail all of the wildlife-derived commodities. It is important, however, to generally relate resource utilisation to the direct economic benefits derived from the use of its products. Therefore, Part III first discusses the existing constraints on the use of wildlife products and then describes the customary uses, the practice of processing and marketing, and the trade in the most economically important wildlife products.


European Union Wild Animal Harp Seal Musk Deer Game Animal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature references

  1. 1.
    ANADU, P.A., ELAMAH, P.O. and J.F. OATES (1988): The Bushmeat Trade in Southwestern Nigeria: A Case Study. Human Ecology, 16 (2), p. 199–208Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ANONYMOUS (1990): Food Processor II database (Venison 3. 22 F.T.); ESHA Research; Salem, Oreg., USAGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ANONYMOUS (1991): Micro Regal database (Version 1.1); ed. FEINBERG, M.; ParisGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    ANONYMOUS (1992): EC Directive 92/45/ECC of 16 June 1992 on public health and veterinary problems relating to the killing of game animals and marketing of game meat. EEC Bulletin No. L268/35 of 14 September, 1992; BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ANONYMOUS (1993a): Statistics from the FAO Interlinked Computer System. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Statistics Division; RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ANONYMOUS (1993b): World meat situation and outlook. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome; June 1993Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ANONYMOUS (1993c): Agriculture: Towards 2010. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome; Nov. 1993Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ANONYMOUS (1993d): The New Zealand deer industry, an overview of production, marketing and trade. FAS/USDA report; US Embassy, Wellington, New Zealand; June 1993Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ANONYMOUS (1993e): Prodi 4.2 plus database; ed. KLUTHE, B and P. KASSEL. Wissenschaftiche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CAMBERO, M.I., DE LA HOZ, L., SANT, B. and J.A. ORDONEZ (1991): Fett-und chemische Zusammensetzung bei spanischen Wildhasen. Fleischwirtschaft, 71, p. 54–55Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    CRAWFORD, M. (1973): A reevaluation of the nutritional role of animal products. In: Proceedings of the Illyd World Conference on Animal Production, ed. REID, R.L.; p. 21–35; University of Sydney, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    DE VOS, A. (1978): Game as food. Unasylva, 29 (116), p. 2–12Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Falconer, J. (1992); Non-timber forest products in Southern Ghana. A Summary Report. Overseas Development Administration; Forestry Series No. 2; London; 23 pp.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    FREUDENREICH, P. and K. FISCHER (1989): Untersuchungen zur Fleischqualität von Damtieren. Landwirtschaftliche Wildhaltung, Wildtiere in Gehegen; Heft 5; p. 87Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    HERZOG, R. (1994): Fleischerzeugung mit Gehegewild und Kaninchen. Fleischwirtschaft, 74, p. 257Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    HONIKEL, K.O. (1995): pers. comm.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    HONIKEL, K.O. and R. WELLHÄUSER (1993a): Zusammensetzung verbrauchergerecht zugeschnittener Rindfleischstücke. Fleischwirtschaft, 73, p. 1051Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    HONIKEL, K.O. and R. WELLHÄUSER (1993b): Zusammensetzung verbrauchergerecht zugeschnittener Schweinetleischstücke. Fleischwirtschaft, 73, p. 863Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    JANSEN, A. and C. RING (1993): Wirkung der Beize auf Schwarzwildbret. Fleischwirtschaft, 73, p. 693–694Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    KROSTITZ, W. (1979): The new international market for game meat. Unasylva, 31 (123), p. 32–36Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    LUXMOORE, R.A. (1989): International trade. In: Wildlife production systems, ed. HUDSON, R.J., DREW, K.R. and L.M. BASKIN; p. 28–49; Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MANN, I. and B. GRZIMEK (1962): Vom Fleisch der Flusspferde und Antilopen: Fleischwirtschaft, 42, p. 502–504Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    ROTH, H.H. and B. HOPPE-DOMINIK (1996): Le marché de viande de brousse à Toumodi en C6te d’Ivoire (publication in preparation) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    SCHWARK, H.J., BRÜGGEMANN, J. and M. GOLZE (1990): Der Schlachtkörper des Damwildes und seine Zusammensetzung. Monatshefte far Veterinärmedizin, 45, p. 504–506Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    SPERBER, E., LEYK, W. and E. GEHLE (1982): Zusammensetzung und organoleptische Eigenschaften des Fleisches vom Nutria. Fleischwirtschaft, 62, p. 1329Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    SZENTKUTI, L. and O. SCHLEGEL (1985): Genetische und funktionelle Einflüsse auf Fasertypenanteile und Faserdurchmesser im M. longissimus dorsi und M. semitendinosus von Schweinen. Untersuchungen an trainierten Haus-und immobil gehaltenen Wildschweinen. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 92 p. 93–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    UHEROVA, R., BUCHTOVA, V. and M. TAKACSOVA (1992): Nährwertfaktoren im Wildfleisch. Fleischwirtschaft, 72, p. 1155–1156Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    UHR, G. (1994): Vergleichende Untersuchung am Darmtrakt des Haus-und Wildschweins unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Darmschleimhautimmunsystems. Habilitationsschrift; Tierärztliche Hochschule, Hannover, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    WILSON, V.J. and B.L.P. (1991): La chasse traditionelle et commerciale dans le sud ouest du Congo. TURACO; Research Report No. 4, Chapt. 16, p. 279–389; Turaco Press, Brussels; in association with CONOCO OIL Co.Google Scholar
  30. 1.
    ANONYMOUS (annual): International Whaling Statistics. Bureau of International Whaling Statistics, Sandefjord, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  31. 2.
    ACKMAN, R.G. and F. LAMOTHE (1989): Marine Mammals. In: Marine biogenic lipids, fats and oils, ed. ACKMAN, R.G.; vol. 2, p. 179–381, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl., USAGoogle Scholar
  32. 3.
    BERRY, R.J. (1985): The natural history of Orkney. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. 4.
    BONNER, W.N. (1980): Whales. Blandford Press, Poole, Dorset, UKGoogle Scholar
  34. 5.
    BONNER, W.N. (1982): Seals and Man: a study of interactions. Washington University Press, Seattle, Wash., USAGoogle Scholar
  35. 6.
    BUSCH, B.C. (1982): Seals and Man: The war against the seals: a history of the North American seal fishery. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Kingston, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  36. 7.
    CLARKE, M.R. (1978): Physical properties of spermaceti oil in the sperm whale. Journal of the Marine Biology Association of the United Kingdom, 58, p. 19–26Google Scholar
  37. 8.
    CUMPSTON, J.S. (1968): Macquarie Island. Publication No. 93, ANARE Scientific Report A ( 1 ); Antarctic Division, Department of External Affairs, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  38. 9.
    JACKSON, G. (1978): The British whaling trade. Adam and Charles Black, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. 10.
    JANSGAARD, P.M. and P.J. KE (1968): Principal fatty acids of depot fat and milk lipids from Harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and Hooded seal (Crystophora cristata). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada, 25, p. 2419–2432Google Scholar
  40. 11.
    LOCKLEY, R.M. (1966): Grey seal, common seal. André Deutsch, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. 12.
    MORRIS, R.J. (1975): The lipid structure of the spermaceti organ of the sperm whale (Physeter catodon). Deepsea Research, 20, p. 911–916Google Scholar
  42. 13.
    STRANGE, I. (1972): The Falkland Islands. David and Charles, Newton Abbot, Devon, UKGoogle Scholar
  43. 14.
    TQNNESON, J.N. and A.O. JOHNSEN (1982): The History of Modern Whaling. C. Hurst and Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. 15.
    WINTER, G. and W.J. NUNN (1950): The component fatty acids of Elephant seal oil. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 1, p. 18–21Google Scholar
  45. 1.
    ANONYMOUS (1993): World production for offering at the “western” markets. Official Auction Statistics; Oslo Fur Auctions, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  46. 2.
    ANONYMOUS (1994): U.S. Fur apparel imports. Statistics of the US Department of Commerce; Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. 3.
    BARZDO, J., LUXMOORE, R., BROAD, S. and D. JONES (1984): A survey of wildlife farming operations. WCMC/IUCN; Cambridge (unpubl. report )Google Scholar
  48. 4.
    BRASS, E. (1925): Aus dem Reich der Pelze. Verlag Neue Pelzwaren - und Kürschner-Zeitung, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  49. 5.
    FUJITA, H.O. and J.O. CALVO (1981): Las exportaciones de productos y subproductos de la fauna silvestre en el quinquenio 1976/1980. IDIA; No. 397–400; Instituto Nacional de Technologia Agropecuaria (INTA), Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  50. 6.
    HALL, E.G. and M.E. OBBARD (1987): 55. Pelt Preparation. In: Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America, ed. NOVAK, M., BAKER, J.R., OBBARD, M.E. and B. MALLOCH; p. 843–861; Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  51. 7.
    NOVAK, M., OBBARD, M.E., JONES, J.G., NEWMAN, R., BOOTH, A., SA’1“l’ERTHWAITE, A. and G. LINSCOMBE (1987): Furbearer Harvests in North America, 1600–1984. Supplement to Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America (see (6))Google Scholar
  52. 8.
    RAMSEY, B.J. (1994): Commercial use of wild animals in Australia. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Australian Government Publishing Services; Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  53. 9.
    SHIEFF, A. and J.A. BAKER (1987): Marketing and International Fur Markets In: Wild Fur-bearer Management and Conservation in North America, ed. NOVAK, M., BAKER, J.R., OBBARD, M.E. and B. MALLOCH; p. 862–877; Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  54. 10.
    SCHIPPER, S.S. (1987): 57. Garment Manufacture. In: Wild Forbearer Management and Conservation in North America, ed. NOVAK, M., BAKER; J.R., OBBARD, M.E. and B. MALLOCH; p. 878–888; Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  55. 11.
    WILLIAMS, T. (1985): Small cats: Forgotten, Exploited. Audubon, 87 (6), p. 34–40Google Scholar
  56. 1.
    ANONYMOUS (1914): Straussenzucht in British Afrika, Amerika, Australien. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung, 48, p. 514Google Scholar
  57. 2.
    ANONYMOUS (1928): Official Yearbook of the Union and of Basutoland, Bechuana Protectorate and Swaziland. No. 10, 1927/28 (cited after NEUNZIG 1929/33)Google Scholar
  58. 3. ANONYMOUS (1987): Positions on proposals to amend the Appendices of CITES at the Sixth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties; TRAFFIC Network (cited after FITZGERALD 1989) Google Scholar
  59. 4.
    ANONYMOUS (1988): News and announcements. Ornithological Newsletter, No. 61; American Ornithological Society, Columbus, Ohio, USAGoogle Scholar
  60. 5.
    ANONYMOUS (1991): Review of significant trade in species listed on Appendix II of CITES, 1983–1988. WCMC, Cambridge (unpubl. background data document)Google Scholar
  61. 6.
    ANONYMOUS (1995): Seizures and prosecutions: France. TRAFFIC Bulletin, 15(2 and 3), p. 92 and 116Google Scholar
  62. 7.
    BRAMELD, D. (1985): Return of the Jungle Cock: The un-endangered gray jungle fowl. Fly fishing, Jan. 1985, p. 30–32Google Scholar
  63. 8.
    DAWNES, M.C. (1969): Report of the Wildlife Ecology Section 1968/69. Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, Papua New Guinea; 12 pp. (unpubl. report)Google Scholar
  64. 9.
    DIAMOND, A.W. (1987): Uses of Birds: A global view. In: The Value of Birds, ed DIAMOND, A.W. and F.L. FILION; p. 103–104; ICBP Technical Publication, No. 6, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  65. 10.
    DOUGHTY, R.W. (1975): Feather Fashions and Bird Preservation. University of California Press, Berkley, Ca., USAGoogle Scholar
  66. 11.
    DOUGHTY, R.W. (1979): Eider husbandry in the North Atlantic: trends and prospects. Polar Record, 19, p. 447–459Google Scholar
  67. 12.
    FITZGERALD, S. (1989): International Wildlife Trade: Whose Business is it? WWF (USA), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  68. 13.
    INSKIPP, T. and S. WELLS (1979): International trade in wildlife. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. 14.
    KELSON, G.M. (1896): The Salmon Fly. LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. 15.
    KNAUER, E. (1914): Vogelschutz und Federindustrie. Eine Streitfrage der Zeit. W. Braumüller, Wien and LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  71. 16.
    LEFEVRE, E. (1914): Le commerce et l’industrie de la plume pour pàrure. Chez l’auteur, ParisGoogle Scholar
  72. 17.
    NEUNZIG, R. (1929–33): Vogelbälge und Federn. In: Die Rohstoffe des Tierreichs, ed. PAX, F. and W. ARNDT; Vol. 1, Part 1, p. 568–845; Gebr. Borntraeger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  73. 18.
    PEARSON, H.J. and E. BIDWELL (1894): On birds’-nesting to the north of Norway in 1893. The Ibis, 6, p. 226–238Google Scholar
  74. 19.
    REINHARDT, L. (1912): Die Erde und die Kultur. Bd. I II. Kulturgeschichte der Nutztiere. Ernst Reinhardt, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  75. 20.
    SCHNEIDER, K. (1987): Director of Feather Way, Lakeside, Ca. USA - in litt.Google Scholar
  76. 21.
    SCHNEIDER, K. (1988): The last feathers. Feather Way, Lakeside, Ca., USAGoogle Scholar
  77. 22.
    SCHWARTZ, M. (1911): Sind internationale Vereinbarungen zum Schutz solcher Vögel erwünscht, deren Bestand dadurch gefährdet ist, dass man sie ihrer Schmuckfedern wegen verfolgt? In: Proceedings of the Vth International Congress of Ornithologists, Berlin 1910; p. 839–846Google Scholar
  78. 23.
    SMIT, D.G.v.Z. (1963): Ostrich Fanning in the Little Karoo. Deparment of Agricultural Technical Services, Bulletin No. 358; Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  79. 24.
    TYLER, H.A. (1982): Pueblo Birds and Myths (cited after SCHNEIDER 1988 )Google Scholar
  80. 25.
    VILLALBA-MACLAS, J.S. (undated): pers. comm. (cited after FITZGERALD 1989 )Google Scholar
  81. 1.
    ANONYMOUS (1991): Review of significant trade in species of animals listed on Appendix II of CITES, 1983–1988. WCMC, Cambridge (unpubl. background document)Google Scholar
  82. 2.
    BUBENIK, A.B. (1989): Sport hunting in continental Europe. In: Wildlife production systems, ed. HUDSON, R.J., DREW, K.R. and L. M. BASKIN; p. 115–133; Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  83. 3.
    FERGUSSON, R.A. (1994): Sport hunting in Zimbabwe - 1993. Zimbabwe Association of Tour and Safari Operators (ZATSO/ZPHGA); Harare, ZimbabweGoogle Scholar
  84. 4.
    HALTENORTH, T. and W. TRENSE (1956): Das Grosswild der Erde und seine Trophäen. Bayerischer Landwirtschaftsverlag, München; 436 pp.Google Scholar
  85. 5.
    MÜLLER-USING, D. (1955): Von Ursprung und Sinn der Trophäen. Österreichisches Weidwerk, Jhg. 1955, Wien; p. 11–21Google Scholar
  86. 6.
    PEAK, R. (1989): Processing of hunted trophies. In: Proceedings of the SADCC/GTZ Workshop on Processing and Marketing of Wildlife Products, 13–21 Nov. 1989, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, Agenda point 2.3; ed. FGU CONSULTING, Königstein, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  87. 7.
    ROWLAND WARD (1910): Records of Big Game. 6th edition; LondonGoogle Scholar
  88. 1.
    BARBIER, E.B., BURGESS, J.C., SWANSON, T.M. and D.W. PEARCE (1990): Elephants, economics and ivory. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. 2.
    CALDWELL, J.R. and R.A. LUXMOORE (1990): Recent changes in world ivory trade. TRAFFIC Bulletin, 11 (4), p. 50–58Google Scholar
  90. 3.
    CATTRICK, A. (1959): Spoor of Blood. Howard Timmins, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  91. 4.
    CLUTTON-BROCK, J. (1987): A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge University Press and British Museum (Natural History), Cambridge and London; p. 116–120Google Scholar
  92. 5.
    MARTIN, E.B. (1984): Zimbabwe’s ivory carving industry. TRAFFIC Bulletin, VI (2), p. 3338Google Scholar
  93. 6.
    MARTIN, E.B. (1985): The Japanese ivory industry. WWF Japan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  94. 7.
    MARTIN, E.B. (1988): China’s ivory carving industry. TRAFFIC Bulletin, 10 (1/2), p. 4–7Google Scholar
  95. 8.
    MARTIN, E.B. (1990a): Ivory billiard balls. BBC Wildlife, 8 (9), p. 622–623Google Scholar
  96. 9.
    MARTIN, E.B. (1990b): After the ivory bans. Wildlife Conservation, 93 (6), p. 28–31Google Scholar
  97. 10.
    MARTIN, E.B. and L. VIGNE (1989): The decline and fall of India’s ivory industry. Pachyderm, 12, p. 4–21Google Scholar
  98. 11.
    ROTH, H.H. and I. DOUGLAS-HAMILTON (1991): Distribution and status of elephants in West Africa, Mammalia, 55 (5), p. 489–527Google Scholar
  99. 12.
    SUKUMAR, R. (1989): The Asian elephant: ecology and management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; p. 165–173Google Scholar

Rhino horn

  1. 1.
    BROOKS, M. (1992): Chairman’s Report: IUCN/SSC African Rhino Specialist Group. Pachyderm, 15, p. 6Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    MARTIN, C.B. and E.B. (1991): Protligate spending exploits wildlife in Taiwan. Oryx, 25 (1), p. 19Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    MARTIN, E.B. and C.B. (1982): Run Rhino Run. Chatto and Windus, London; p. 56Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    VIGNE, L. and E.B. MARTIN (1993): Yemen’s rhino horn trade increases. Oryx, 27 (2), p. 94Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    WESTERN, D. and L. VIGNE, (1985): The deteriorating status of African rhinos. Oryx, 19, p. 216Google Scholar

Antler velvet

  1. 6.
    DREW, K.R., BAI, Q. and E.V. FADEEV (1989): Deer farming in Asia. In: Wildlife production systems, ed. HUDSON R.J., DREW K.R. and L.M. BASKIN; p. 334–346; Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. 7.
    FLETCHER, T.J. (1984): 16. Other deer. In: Evolution of domesticated animals, ed. MASON, I.L.; p. 138–145; Longman Group, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 8.
    GREER, E.C. and R.W. DOUGHTY (1976): Wildlife Utilisation in China. Environmental Conservation, 3 (3), p. 200–208Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    JUDIN, A.M. (1993): Velvet antlers as drug resource (in Russian). Nauka, Novosibirsk, Russia; 120 pp.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    LEE, C.H. and T.S. CHA’NG (1985): Marketing and utilisation of deer products in Asia (cited after LUXMOORE 1989 )Google Scholar
  6. 11.
    LUXMOORE, R.A. (1989): International trade. In: Wildlife production systems, ed. HUDSON, R.J., DREW, K.R. and L.M. BASKIN; p. 28–49; Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. 12.
    PINNEY, B. (1981): Delegation to China (cited after DREW and coll. 1989)Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    RENNIE, N. (1982): Antler velvet. In: The Farming of Deer: World Trends and Modern Techniques; ed. YEREX, D.; p. 141–144; Agricultural Promotion Associates; WellingtonGoogle Scholar

New Zealand Musks

  1. 14.
    ANONYMOUS (1988): Japan Stockpiles Musk. TRAFFIC (USA), 8 (1), p. 17Google Scholar
  2. 15.
    BANNIKOV, A.G., USTINOV, S.K. and LOBANOV, P.N. (1980): The Musk Deer, Moschus moschiferus, in the USSR. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland (unpubl. report )Google Scholar
  3. 16.
    BARZDO, J., LUXMOORE, R., BROAD, S. and D. JONES (1984): A survey of wildlife farming operations. WCMC/IUCN, Cambridge (unpubl. report )Google Scholar
  4. 17.
    BERHANU, A.L. (1984): 29. Civets. In: Evolution of domesticated animals, ed. MASON I.L.; p. 237–238; Longman Group, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 18.
    BI, S.Z., YAN, Y.H., QUEING, Z.X., SHENG, P.T., WU, Y.M., CHEN, C.F., XU, H. J., YANG, G.K., YIN, T.B. and Y.L. LU (1980): Dissection and analysis of the musk gland of M. moschiferus and a preliminary investigation into its histology (cited after GREEN 1989)Google Scholar
  6. 19.
    BISTA, R.B., SHRESTA, M.N. and B. KATTEL (1979): Domestication of the dwarf musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) in China (cited after GREEN 1989 )Google Scholar
  7. 20.
    CECCHI, A. (1888): Fünf Jahre in Ostafrika. F. Brockhaus, Leipzig; p. 444–446Google Scholar
  8. 21.
    GEYER, H.J., RIMKUS, G., WOLF, M., ATTAR, A., STEINBERG, C. and A. KETTRUP (1994): Synthetische Nitromoschus-Duftstoffe und Bromocyclen–Neue Umweltchemikalien in Fischen und Muscheln bzw. Muttermilch und Humanfett. Zeitschrift für Umweltchemie und Ökotoxikologie, 6 (1), p. 9–17Google Scholar
  9. 22.
    GREEN, M.J.B. (1988): The musk trade, with particular reference to its impact on the Himalayan population of Moschus chrysogaster (cited after GREEN 1989 )Google Scholar
  10. 23.
    GREEN, M.J.B. (1989): Musk production from musk deer. In: Wildlife production systems, ed. HUDSON, R.J., DREW, K.R. and L.M. BASKIN; p. 401–409; Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. 24.
    GUIBOURT, N.Y.B. (1869/70): Histoire naturelle des drogues simples (6ième edition). Vol. 4; Baillière, ParisGoogle Scholar
  12. 25.
    KRUG, W. (1969): Civet farming in Ethiopia. FAO Animal Health Project, Jimma, Ethiopia; (unpubl. report )Google Scholar
  13. 26.
    PARRY, E.J. (1925): Parry’s Cyclopedia of Perfumes. Vol. 2; p. 473–486; J. and A. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. 27.
    POUCHER, W.A. (1936): Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps. Vol. 1; p. 123–124; Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. 28.
    ZHANG, B.L. (1983): Musk deer: their capture, domestication and care according to Chinese experience and methods. Unasylva, 35, p. 16–24Google Scholar
  16. 29.
    ZHANG, B.L., DANG, F.M. and B.S. LI, (1979): The Farming of Musk Deer (cited after GREEN 1989 )Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harald H. Roth
    • 1
  • Günter Merz
    • 2
  1. 1.BerlinGermany
  2. 2.WWF-UmweltstiftungFrankfurt/MainGermany

Personalised recommendations