• Martin Mahner
  • Mario Bunge


Now that we have a rough knowledge of what an organism is (Sect. 4.3), we can proceed to explore how organisms are classified. Without such knowledge no biological classification would be possible, because in order to classify living systems rather than nonliving ones we must be able to tell the difference between the two. Telling the difference between two objects or classes of objects, however, is itself an act of classification. Therefore, we shall first examine the general principles of classing before we turn to the peculiarities of biological classification.


Transportation Arsenic Iodine Chlorine Hull 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Mahner
    • 1
  • Mario Bunge
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of ZoologyFree University of BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Foundations & Philosophy of Science UnitMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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