Radiative Forcing

  • Claire Granier
  • Igor Karol
Conference paper
Part of the Nato ASI Series book series (volume 54)


The concept of radiative forcing provides an easy way to obtain a quantified first order estimate of how changes in any climatic parameter might affect world climate. It is defined in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Reports (IPCC, 1990, 1992 and 1994) as follows:

The radiative forcing of the surface-troposphere system (due to a change, for example, in greenhouse gas concentration) is the change in the net irradiance (in Wm-2) at the tropopause after allowing for stratospheric temperatures to re-adjust to radiative equilibrium, but with surface and tropospheric temperatures held fixed at their unperturbed values.


Global Warming Potential Radiative Force Stratospheric Ozone Tropospheric Ozone Stratospheric Aerosol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Granier
    • 1
  • Igor Karol
    • 2
  1. 1.National Center for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Main Geophysical ObservatorySt. PetersburgRussia

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