Complex Systems and the Evolution of Artificial Intelligence

  • Klaus Mainzer


Can machines think? This famous question from Turing has new topicality in the framework of complex systems. The chapter starts with a short history of computer science since Leibniz and his program for mechanizing thinking (mathesis universalis) (Sect. 5.1). The modern theory of computability enables us to distinguish complexity classes of problems, meaning the order of corresponding functions describing the computational time of their algorithms or computational programs. Modern computer science is interested not only in the complexity of universal problem solving but also in the complexity of knowledge-based programs. Famous examples are expert systems simulating the problem solving behavior of human experts in their specialized fields. Further on, we ask if a higher efficiency of problem solving may be expected from quantum computers and quantum complexity theory (Sect. 5.2).


Expert System Cellular Automaton Turing Machine Certainty Factor Necker Cube 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Mainzer
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Philosophie und WissenschaftstheorieUniversität AugsburgAugsburgDeutschland

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