Abstract

One major consequence of the Coulomb interaction between electrons and holes in semiconductors is the formation of excitons with a hydrogenic series of bound states converging to the bandgap energy. It is now well-known that excitons profoundly influence optical properties of a large number of insulators, molecular crystals and semiconductors. Theory of excitons was first developed by Frenkel [6.1], Peierls [6.2], and Wannier [6.3] in 1930s in an attempt to understand the basic absorption mechanism in solids. Excitons are classified into two types: Frenkel excitons for which the electron-hole pair is very tightly bound, and Wannier excitons where the electron orbits around a hole with a large radius. Excitons in semiconductors are generally Wannier excitons with large radii [6.4].

Keywords

Manifold Recombination Coherence GaAs Convolution 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 6.1
    J. Frenkel: Phys. Rev. 37, 17 (1931)ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 6.1A
    J. Frenkel: Phys. Rev. 37, 1276 (1931)ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. R.E. Peierls: Ann. Physik 13, 905 (1932)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 6.3
    G.H. Wannier: Phys. Rev. 52, 191 (1937)ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 6.4
    M. Ueta, H. Kanzaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Toyozawa, E. Hanamura: Excitonic Processes in Solids, Springer Ser. Solid-State Sci., Vol.60 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1986)Google Scholar
  6. 6.5
    R.S. Knox: Theory of Excitons (Academic, New York 1963)MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.6
    D.L. Dexter, R.S. Knox: Excitons (Interscience, New York 1965)Google Scholar
  8. 6.7
    J.O. Dimmock: Optical Properties of III-V Compounds. Semiconductors and Semimetals 3, 259–319 (Academic, New York 1967)Google Scholar
  9. 6.8
    H. Haken, S. Nikitine (eds.): Excitons at High Density, Springer Tracts Mod. Phys., Vol.73 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1975)Google Scholar
  10. 6.9
    K. Cho (ed.): Excitons, Topics Curr. Phys., Vol.14 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979)Google Scholar
  11. 6.10
    D.C. Reynolds, T.C. Collins: Excitons: Their Properties and Uses (Academic, New York 1981)Google Scholar
  12. 6.11
    E.I. Rashba, M.D. Sturge (eds.): Excitons (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1982)Google Scholar
  13. 6.12
    R.J. Elliott: Phys. Rev. 108, 1384 (1957)ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 6.13
    R.J. Elliott: In Polarons and Excitons, ed. by C.G. Kuper, G.D. Whitfield (Plenum, New York 1963) pp.269–293Google Scholar
  15. 6.14
    S. Schmitt-Rink, D.S. Chemla, D.A.B. Miller: Adv. Phys. 38, 89 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 6.15
    J.J. Hopfield: Phys. Rev. 112, 1555 (1958)ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 6.16
    Y. Toyozawa: Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 12, 111 (1959)ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 6.17
    K. Cho: In Excitons, ed. by K. Cho, Topics Curr. Phys., Vol.14 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979) Chap.2Google Scholar
  19. 6.18
    B. Fischer, J. Lagois: In Excitons, ed. by K. Cho, Topics Curr. Phys., Vol.14 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979) Chap.4Google Scholar
  20. 6.19
    P.Y. Yu: In Excitons, ed. by K. Cho, Topics Curr. Phys., Vol.14 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979) Chap.5Google Scholar
  21. 6.20
    J. L. Birman: In Ex ci tons, ed. by E. I. Rashba, M.D. Sturge (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1982) pp. 83–140Google Scholar
  22. 6.21
    E.S. Koteles: In Excitons, ed. by E .I. Rashba, M.D. Sturge (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1982) pp. 83–140Google Scholar
  23. 6.22
    C. Weisbuch, R.G. Ulbrich: In Light Scattering in Solids III, ed. by M. Cardona, G. Güntherodt, Topics Appl. Phys., Vol.51 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982) Chap. 7Google Scholar
  24. 6.23
    F. Bassani: In Optical Properties of Semiconductors, ed. by G. Martinez (Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands 1993) pp.324–364Google Scholar
  25. 6.24
    H. Haug, S.W. Koch: Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors (World Scientific, Singapore 1993)Google Scholar
  26. 6.24a
    C.F. Klingshirn: Semiconductor Optics (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1995)Google Scholar
  27. 6.25
    V.M. Agranovich, V.L. Ginzburg: Spatial Dispersion in Crystal Optics and Theory of Excitons (Interscience, London 1966)Google Scholar
  28. 6.25a
    V.M. Agranovich, V.L. Ginzburg: Crystal Optics with Spatial Dispersion, and Excitons, 2nd edn., Springer Ser. Solid-State Sci., Vol.42 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1984)Google Scholar
  29. 6.26
    S.I. Pekar: Sov. Phys. JETP 6, 785 (1958)MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 6.27
    S.I. Pekar: Sov. Phys. JETP 7, 813 (1958)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  31. 6.28
    V. M. Agranovich, V .O. Dubovskii: JETP Lett. 3, 223 (1966)Google Scholar
  32. 6.29
    A. Quattropani, L.C. Andreani, F. Bassani: Nuovo Cimento D 7, 55 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 6.30
    L.C. Andreani, F. Bassani: Phys. Rev. B 41, 7536 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 6.31
    F. Tassone, F. Bassani, L.C. Andreani: Nuovo Cimento D 12, 1673 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 6.32
    V. M. Agranovich: In Proc. Int’l Conf. on Opticsl of Excitons in Confined Systems, ed. by A. D’Andrea, R. Del Sole, R. Girlanda, A. Quattropani, IoP Conf. Ser., Vo1.123 (IoP, Bristol, UK 1992) p.1Google Scholar
  36. 6.33
    E. Hanamura: SPIE Proc. 1268, 96 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 6.34
    E. Hanamura: Phys. Rev. B 38, 1228 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 6.35
    F. Tassone, F. Bassani, L.C. Andreani: Phys. Rev. B 45, 6023 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 6.36
    R.T. Harley: In Coherent Optical Interactions in Solids, ed. by R.T. Phillips (Plenum, New York 1994) pp. 91–109Google Scholar
  40. 6.37
    J. Lee, E.S. Koteles, M.O. Vassell: Phys. Rev. B 33, 5512 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 6.38
    H. Stolz, D. Schwarze, W. von der Osten, G. Weimann: Superlattices and Microstructures 6, 271 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 6.39
    S. Rudin, T.L. Reinecke, B. Segall: Phys. Rev. B 42, 11218 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 6.40
    S. Rudin, T. L. Reinecke: Phys. Rev. B 41, 3017 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 6.41
    F. Meier, B.P. Zakharchenya (eds.): Optical Orientation (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1984)Google Scholar
  45. 6.42
    E.J. Johnson, R.J. Seymour, R.R. Alfano: In Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy, ed. by R.R. Alfano (Academic, Orlando, FL 1984) pp. 199 – 241Google Scholar
  46. 6.43
    M.Z. Maialle, E.A. de Andrada e Silva, L.J. Sham: Phys. Rev. B 47, 15776 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 6.44
    M. Z. Maialle, L. J. Sham: Surf. Sci. 305, 256 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 6.45
    W. Ekardt, K. Losch, D. Bimberg: Phys. Rev. B 20, 3303 (1979)ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 6.46
    Y. Shinozuka, M. Matsuura: Phys. Rev. B 28, 4878 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 6.47
    G.E. Bauer, T. Ando: Phys. Rev. B 31, 8321 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 6.48
    M. Matsuura, T. Kamizato: Surf. Sci. 174, 183 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 6.49
    U. Rossler, S. Jorda, D. Broido: Solid State Commun. 73, 209 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 6.50
    F. Askary, P.Y. Yu: Phys. Rev. B 31, 6643 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 6.51 G.W.’t Hooft, W.A.J.A. van der Poel, L.W. Molenkamp, C.T. Foxon: Phys. Rev. B 15, 8281 (1987)Google Scholar
  55. 6.52
    W.J. Rappel, L.F. Feiner, M.F.H. Schuurmans: Phys. Rev. B 38, 7874 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 6.53
    L.C. Andreani, F. Tassone, F. Bassani: Solid State Commun. 77, 641 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 6.54
    D.S. Citrin: Phys. Rev. B 47, 3832 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 6.55
    D.S. Citrin: Solid State Commun. 84, 281 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 6.56
    L.C. Andreani, A. Pasquarello: Phys. Rev. B 42, 8928 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 6.57
    L.C. Andreani, A. Pasquarello: Superlattices and Microstructures 5, 59 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 6.58
    L.C. Andreani, A. Pasquarello: Europhys. Lett. 6, 259 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 6.59
    T. Tokihiro, Y. Manabe, E. Hanamura: Phys. Rev. B 47, 2019 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 6.60
    D.S. Citrin: Solid State Commun. 89, 139 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 6.61
    F.C. Spano, J.R. Kuklinski, S. Mukamel: Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 211 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 6.62
    H. Stolz, D. Schwarze, W. von der Osten, G. Weimann: Phys. Rev. B 47, 9669 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 6.63
    H. Stolz, D. Schwarze, W. von der Osten, G. Weimann, W. Schottky: Superlattices and Microstructures 9, 511 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 6.64 R. Zimmermann: Unpublished (1994)Google Scholar
  68. 6.65
    J. Kusano, Y. Segawa, T. Aoyagi, S. Namba, H. Okamoto: Phys. Rev. B 40, 1685 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 6.66
    T.C. Damen, J. Shah, D.Y. Oberli, D.S. Chemla, J.E. Cunningham, J.M. Kuo: Phys. Rev. B 42, 7434 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 6.67
    P.W.M. Blom, P.J. van Hall, C. Smit, J.P. Cuypers, J.H. Wolter: Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3878 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. 6.68
    J. Shah: IEEE J. QE-24, 276 (1988)Google Scholar
  72. 6.69
    P.W.M. Blom, J. Claes, J.E.M. Haverkort, J.H. Wolter: Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S667 (1994)Google Scholar
  73. 6.70
    P. Roussignol, C. Delalande, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci: Phys. Rev. B 45, 6965 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 6.71
    B. Deveaud, F. Clerot, N. Roy, K. Satzke, B. Sermage, D.S. Katzer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2355 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 6.72
    S. Nikitine: In Optical Properties of Solids, ed. by S. Nudelman, S.S. Mitra (Plenum, New York 1969) pp.197–237Google Scholar
  76. 6.73
    A.T. Agekyan: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 43, 11 (1977)ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 6.74
    D.W. Snoke , D. Braun, M. Cardona: Phys. Rev. B 44, 2991 (1991)Google Scholar
  78. 6.75
    J. Shah, R.F. Leheny, W.F. Brinkman: Phys. Rev. B 10, 659 (1974)ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 6.76
    W.E. Bron: In Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics, ed. by W.E. Bron (Plenum, New York 1985) pp.1–57Google Scholar
  80. 6.77
    R.J. Seymour, R.R. Alfano: Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 231 (1980)ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 6.78
    R.J. Seymour, M.R. Junnarkar, R.R. Alfano: Phys. Rev. B 24, 3623 (1981)ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 6.79
    G. Bastard, L.L. Chang: Phys. Rev. B 41, 7899 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. 6.80
    M.R. Freeman, D.D. Awschalom, J.M. Hong, L.L. Chang: Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2430 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. 6.81
    R. Ferreira, G. Bastard: Phys. Rev. B 43, 9687 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 6.82
    G. Bastard: Phys. Rev. B 46, 4253 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 6.83
    G. Bastard, R. Ferreira: Surf. Sci. 267, 335 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 6.84
    P. Roussignol, P. Rolland, R. Ferreira, C. Delalande, G. Bastard, A. Vinattieri, J. Martinez-Pastor, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, J.F. Palmier, B. Etienne: Phys. Rev. B 46, 7292 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. 6.85
    P. Roussignol, P. Rolland, R. Ferreira, C. Delalande, G. Bastard, A. Vinattieri, L. Carraresi, M. Colocci, B. Etienne: Surf. Sci. 267, 360 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 6.86
    D.D. Awschalom and N. Samarth: In Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, ed. by H. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, E.O. Göbel (Akademie, Berlin 1993) pp.291–311Google Scholar
  90. 6.87
    T.C. Damen, L. Viña, J.E. Cunningham, J. Shah, L.J. Sham: Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. 6.88
    T.C. Damen, K. Leo, J. Shah, J.E. Cunningham: Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1902 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 6.89
    L. Viña, T.C. Damen, J.E. Cunningham, J. Shah, L.J. Sham: Superlattices and Microstructures 12, 379 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 6.90
    P.J. Dean and D.C. Herbert: In Excitons, ed. by K. Cho, Topics Curr. Phys., Vol.14 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979) Chap.3Google Scholar
  94. 6.91
    M. Voos, R.F. Leheny, J. Shah: In Handbook on Semiconductors: II. Optical Properties of Semiconductors, ed. by M. Balkanski (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1980) pp.329–416Google Scholar
  95. 6.92
    P.T. Landsberg: Recombination in Semiconductors (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 1991)Google Scholar
  96. 6.93
    J. Feldmann, G. Peter, E.O. Göbel, P. Dawson, K. Moore, C.T. Foxon, R.J. Elliott: Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2337 (1987)ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. 6.94
    M. Colocci, M. Gurioli, J. Martinez-Pastor: J. Physique IV C 3, 3 (1993)Google Scholar
  98. 6.95
    H. Akiyama, S. Koshiba, T. Someya, K. Wada, H. Noge, Y. Nakamura, T. Inoshita, A. Shimizu, H. Sakaki: Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 924 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. 6.96
    D. Gershoni, M. Katz, W. Wegscheider, L.N. Pfeiffer, R.A. Logan, K. West: Unpublished (1993)Google Scholar
  100. 6.97
    R. Eccleston, B.F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, W.W. Rühle, K. Ploog: Phys. Rev. B 45, 11403 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. 6.98
    H. Haug, S. Schmitt-Rink: Progr. Quantum Electron. 9, 3 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. 6.99
    D.S. Chemla, D.A.B. Miller, P.W. Smith: Opt. Eng. 24, 556 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. 6.100
    S. Schmitt-Rink, D.S. Chemla, D.A.B. Miller: Phys. Rev. B 32, 6601 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. 6.101
    D.S. Chemla: Nonlinear Optics: Materials and Devices, ed. by C. Flytzanis, J. L. Oudar, Springer Proc. Phys. 7, 65–78 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1986)Google Scholar
  105. 6.102
    D.S. Chemla: In Laser Optics of Condensed Matter, ed. by J.L. Birman (Plenum, New York 1988)Google Scholar
  106. 6.103
    S. Schmitt-Rink, D.S. Chemla, H. Haug: Phys. Rev. B 37, 941 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. 6.104
    W.H. Knox, R.L. Fork, M.C. Downer, D.A.B. Miller, D.S. Chemla, C.V. Shank, A.C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann: Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. 6.105
    D.S. Kim, J. Shah, J.E. Cunningham, T.C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, S. Schmitt-Rink: Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. 6.106
    A.V. Nurmikko, R.L. Gunshor: In Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, ed. by H. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, E. O. Göbel (Akademie, Berlin 1993) pp. 231–261Google Scholar
  110. 6.107
    P.C. Becker, D. Lee, A.M. Johnson, A.G. Prosser, R.D. Feldman, R.F. Austin, R.E. Behringer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1876 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. 6.108
    P.C. Becker, D. Lee, M.R.X. Barros, A.M. Johnson, A.G. Prosser, R.D. Feldman, R.F. Austin, R.E. Behringer: IEEE J. QE-28, 2535 (1992)Google Scholar
  112. 6.109
    J.B. Stark, W.H. Knox, D.S. Chemla, W. Schäfer, S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Stafford: Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3033 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. 6.110
    J.B. Stark, W.H. Knox, D.S. Chemla: Phys. Rev. B 46, 7919 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. 6.111
    J.B. Stark, W.H. Knox, D.S. Chemla: Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3080 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. 6.112
    J.B. Stark, W.H. Knox, D.S. Chemla: In Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, ed. by H. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, E. O. Göbel (Akademie, Berlin 1993) pp.399–445Google Scholar
  116. 6.113
    M.Z. Maialle, L.J. Sham: Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3310 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. 6.114
    S. Bar-Ad, I. Bar-Joseph: Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 349 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. 6.115
    I. Brener, W.H. Knox, K.W. Goossen, J.E. Cunningham: Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 319 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. 6.116
    J. Hegarty, M.D. Sturge, C. Weisbuch, A.C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann: Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 930 (1982)ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. 6.117
    H. Stolz, V. Langer, W. von der Osten: J. Lumin. 48 & 49, 72 (1991)Google Scholar
  121. 6.118
    H. Stolz: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 173, 99 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. 6.119
    H. Stolz: Time-Resolved Light Scattering from Excitons, Springer Tracts Mod. Phys., Vol.130 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1994)Google Scholar
  123. 6.120
    M.R. Freeman, D.D. Awschalom, J.M. Hong: Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 704 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. 6.121
    A. Vinattieri, J. Shah, T.C. Damen, D.S. Kim, L.N. Pfeiffer, L.J. Sham: Solid State Commun. 88, 189 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. 6.122
    B. Sermage, B. Deveaud, K. Satzke, F. Clerot, C. Dumas, N. Roy, D.S. Katzer, F. Mollot, R. Planel, M. Berz, J.L. Oudar: Superlattices and Microstructures 13, 271 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. 6.123
    B. Sermage, S. Long, B. Deveaud, D.S. Katzer: J. Physique IV 3, C5, 19 (1993)Google Scholar
  127. 6.124
    A. Vinattieri, J. Shah, T.C. Emen, J.S. Kim, L.N. Pfeiffer, L.J. Sham: J. Physique IV C5, 3, 27 (1993)Google Scholar
  128. 6.125
    A. Vinattieri, J. Shah, T.C. Damen, K.W. Goossen, L.N. Pfeiffer, M.Z. Maialle, L.J. Sham: Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3164 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. 6.126
    A. Vinattieri, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, L. N. Pfeiffer, L. J. Sham, M. Z. Maialle: Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors, ed. by D. K. Ferry and H. M. van Driel, SPIE Proc. 2142, 2–13 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA 1994)Google Scholar
  130. 6.127
    A. Vinattieri, J. Shah, T.C. Damen, D.S. Kim, L.N. Pfeiffer, M.Z. Maialle, L.J. Sham: Phys. Rev. B 50, 10868 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. 6.128 A. Lohner, P. Michler, W. W. Rühle: IQEC’95, OSA Techn. Digest Ser., Vol.14 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 1995) pp.108 – 110Google Scholar
  132. 6.129
    E.O. Göbel, H. Jung, J. Kuhl, K. Ploog: Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1588 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. 6.130 H. Wang, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, L. N. Pfeiffer: IQEC’94, OSA Techn. Digest Ser., Vol.7 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 1994) paper QPD22Google Scholar
  134. 6.131
    H. Wang, J. Shah, T.C. Damen, L.N. Pfeiffer: Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3061 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. 6.132
    H. Wang, J. Shah, T.C. Damen, L. N. Pfeiffer: Ultrafast Phenomena IX, ed. by P.F. Barbara, W.H. Knox, G.A. Mourou, A.H. Zewail, Springer Ser. Chem. Phys., Vol.60 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1994) pp.362–363Google Scholar
  136. 6.133
    H. Wang, J. Shah, T.C. Damen, L.N. Pfeiffer: Solid State Commun. 91, 869 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. 6.134 The decay is non-exponential and becomes slower at longer times. The initial decay rate is consistent with earlier measurements [6.127]Google Scholar
  138. 6.135
    S. Haroche, J.A. Paisner, A.L. Schawlow: Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 948 (1973)ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. 6.136
    H. Stolz, V. Langer, E. Schreiber, S.A. Permogorov, W. von der Osten: Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 679 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. 6.137
    V. Langer, H. Stolz, W. von der Osten: Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 854 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. 6.138
    A.P. Heberle, W.W. Rühle, K. Ploog: Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3887 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. 6.139
    P.R. Berman: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 564 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. 6.140
    J. Hegarty, L. Goldner, M.D. Sturge: Phys. Rev. B 30, 7346 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. 6.141
    S.A. Permogorov, A. Reznitsky, A. Naumov, H. Stolz, W. von der Osten: J. Lumin. 40 & 41, 483 (1988)Google Scholar
  145. 6.142
    H. Stolz: Adv. Solid State Phys. 31, 219 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. 6.143
    H. Wang, J. Shah, T.C. Damen, L.N. Pfeiffer, J.E. Cunningham: Phys. Status Solidi (b) 188, 381 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jagdeep Shah
    • 1
  1. 1.Bell LaboratoriesLucent TechnologiesHolmdelUSA

Personalised recommendations