Electronic Surface States

  • Hans Lüth
Part of the Springer Study Edition book series (SSE)

Abstract

Since the surface is the termination of a bulk crystal, surface atoms have fewer neighbors than bulk atoms; part of the chemical bonds which constitute the bulk-crystal structure are broken at the surface. These bonds have to be broken to create the surface and thus the formation of a surface costs energy (surface tension) (Sect.3.1). In comparison with the bulk properties, therefore, the electronic structure near to the surface is markedly different. Even an ideal surface with its atoms at bulk-like positions (called truncated bulk) displays new electronic levels and modified many-body effects due to the change in chemical bonding. Many macroscopic effects and phenomena on surfaces are related to this change in electronic structure, for example, the surface energy (tension), the adhesion forces, and the specific chemical reactivity of particular surfaces. A central topic in modern surface physics is therefore the development of a detailed understanding of the surface electronic structure. On the theoretical side, the general approach is similar to that for the bulk crystal: In essence the one-electron approximation is used and one tries to solve the Schrödinger equation for an electron near the surface. A variety of approximation methods may then be used to take into account many-body effects.

Keywords

Quartz Graphite Manifold Iodine Hexagonal 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Lüth
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Schicht- und IonentechnikForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHJülichGermany
  2. 2.Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische HochschuleAachenGermany

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