Bases of Peatland Forestry
The primary conditions necessary for mire formation and peat accumulation were discussed in Section 1.2.1. Peat accumulation results when the rate of addition of dry matter exceeds the rate of decay. Conceptually, the function of a mire ecosystem can be presented in the form of energy or carbon flow (Pakarinen 1976; Fig. 3.1). Accumulation of carbon in peat is typical for mire ecosystems, and the determination of the rate of accumulation is a key element in any research on the carbon balance in mires. Mosses, mainly Sphagnum mosses in bogs and fens or hypnoid mosses in rich fens, add new organic matter to the surface (Clymo 1983, 1984; Tolonen and Vasander 1992), but vascular plants produce rhizomes and roots, and these add matter to deeper layers in the peat also (Saarinen et al. 1992). However, most of the organic matter is — at least in ombrotrophic bogs — added to the top 10 cm (Clymo 1983).
KeywordsGroundwater Table Peat Soil Site Type Tree Stand Matric Suction
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