Somatic Embryogenesis in Cacao (Theobroma cacao)

  • V. C. Pence
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 30)

Abstract

The seeds of the cacao tree, Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae), provide the basis of the multibillion dollar chocolate industry. A native of the Neotropics, cacao grows as an understory tree in the rainforest. Flowers and fruit are produced directly from the stem, with pods attaining lengths of approximately 15–25 cm, each containing 30–40 seeds (Pence 1989).

Keywords

Sucrose Fermentation DMSO Germinate Fructose 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adu-Ampomah Y, Novak FJ, Afza R, Van Duren M, Perea Dallos M (1988) Initiation and growth of somatic embryos in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Café Cacao Thé 32: 187–200Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar ME, Villalobos VM, Vasquez N (1992) Production of cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao L.) via micrografting of somatic embryos. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 28P: 15–19Google Scholar
  3. Bajaj YPS (1991) Storage and cryopreservation of in vitro cultures. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 17. High-tech and micropropagation I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 361–381Google Scholar
  4. Bouharmont J (1960) Recherches cytologiques sur la fructification et l’incompatibilité chez Theobroma cacao L. Publ Institut National pour l’Etude Agronomique du Congo ( INEAC ), Sér Sci no 89Google Scholar
  5. Chatelet P, Dufour M (1990) Culture in vitro du cacaoyer (Theobroma cacao L.). Progrès récent en embryogenèse somatique et en micropropagation. In: Cinquantenaire de la culture in vitro. Versailles (France). Les colloques de I’INRA, No 51 INRA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  6. Chatelet P, Michauxferriere N, Dublin P (1992) Embryogenic potential in nucellus and inner integument tissue cultures of immature cacao seeds. C R Acad Sci Ser III 315: 55–62Google Scholar
  7. Dos Santos AVP, Machado RD (1989) A scanning electron microscope study of Theobroma cacao somatic embryogenesis. Ann Bot 64: 293–296Google Scholar
  8. Duhem K, Le Mercier N, Box us P (1989) Données nouvelles sur I’induction et le développement d’embryons somatiques chez Theobroma cacao L. Café Cacao Thé 33: 9–14Google Scholar
  9. Elhag HM, Whipkey A, Janick J (1987) Induction of somatic embryogenesis from callus in Theobroma cacao in response to carbon source and concentration. Rev Theobroma 17: 153–162Google Scholar
  10. Elhag H, Whipkey A, Janick J (1988) Factors affecting asexual embryogenesis via callus in Theobroma cacao L. Arab Gulf J Sci Res Agric Bio Sci B6: 31–43Google Scholar
  11. Esan EB (1977) Tissue culture studies on cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) A supplementation of current research. In: Proc 5th Int Cacao Res Conf, 1975, Cacao Res Inst Nigeria, Ibadan, pp 116–125Google Scholar
  12. Esan EB (1992) Micropropagation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 18. High-tech and micropropagation II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 96–122Google Scholar
  13. Figueira A, Janick J (1993) Development of nucellar somatic embryos of Theobroma cacao. Acta Hortic 336: 231–236Google Scholar
  14. Janick J, Wright DC, Hasegawa PM (1982) In vitro production of cacao seed lipids. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 107: 919–922Google Scholar
  15. Kononowicz H, Janick J (1984) Response of embryogenic callus of Theobroma cacao L. to gibberellic acid and inhibitors of gibberellic acid synthesis. Z Pflanzenphysiol 113: 359–366Google Scholar
  16. Kononowicz H, Janick J (1988a) Changes in nucleus, nucleolus and cell size accompanying somatic embryogenesis of Theobroma cacao L. I. Relationship between DNA and total protein content and size of nucleus, nucleolus and cell. Folia Histochem Cytobiol 26: 237–248Google Scholar
  17. Kononowicz H, Janick J (1988b) Somatic embryogenesis via callus of Theobroma cacao L. I. Cell cycle, DNA content, RNA synthesis and DNA template activity. Acta Physiol Plant 10: 93–106Google Scholar
  18. Kononowicz H, Kononowicz AK, Janick J (1984) Asexual embryogenesis via callus of Theobroma cacao L. Z Pflanzenphysiol 113: 347–358Google Scholar
  19. Litz RE (1986) Tissue culture studies with Theobroma cacao. In: Dimick PS (ed) Proc Cacao Biotechnol Symp. Pennsylvania State Univ, University Park, pp 111–120Google Scholar
  20. Lloyd G, McCown B (1980) Commercially feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia by use of shoot-tip culture. Comb Proc Int Plant Propagators Soc 30: 421–427Google Scholar
  21. Lopez-Baez O, Bollon H, Eskes A, Petiard V (1993) Embryogenèse somatique de cacaoyer Theobroma cacao L. à partir de pièces florales. C R Acad Sci Paris, Life Sci 316: 579–584Google Scholar
  22. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Novak FJ, Donini B, Owusu G (1986) Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plant development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao). In: Proc Int Symp Nuclear techniques and in vitro culture for plant improvement. IAEA, Vienna, pp 443–449Google Scholar
  24. Paiva M, Janick J (1983) In vivo and in vitro production of alkaloids in Theobroma cacao L. Acta Hortic 131: 265 273Google Scholar
  25. Pence VC (1989) Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 5. Trees II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 203–221Google Scholar
  26. Pence VC (1991) Cryopreservation of immature embryos of Theobroma cacao. Plant Cell Rep 10: 144–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pence VC, Hasegawa PM, Janick J (1979) Asexual embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao L. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 104: 145–148Google Scholar
  28. Pence VC, Hasegawa PM, Janick J (1980) Initiation and development of asexual embryos of Theobroma cacao L. in vitro. Z Pflanzenphysiol 98: 1–14Google Scholar
  29. Pence VC, Hasegawa PM, Janick J (198la) In vitro cotyledonary development and anthocyanin synthesis in zygotic and asexual embryos of Theobroma cacao. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 106: 381–385Google Scholar
  30. Pence VC, Hasegawa PM, Janick J (1981b) Sucrose-mediated regulation of fatty acid composition in asexual embryos of Theobroma cacao. Physiol Plant 53: 378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Söndahl M, Sereduk TB, Chen Z, Bellato CM (1989) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cacao patent, patent no. 88/3078, Jan 25, 1989. Republic of South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang Y-C, Janick J (1984) Inducing precocious germination in asexual embryos of cacao. HortScience 19: 839–841Google Scholar
  33. Wang Y-C, Janick J (1985) Characterizing the germination inhibitor from asexual embryo leachate of Theobroma cacao. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 110: 113–117Google Scholar
  34. Wen M-C (1989) Cacao tissue culture. PhD Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. White PR (1963) The cultivation of animal and plant cells, 2nd edn. Ronald Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Yamada T, Sakai A, Matsumura T, Higuchi S (1991) Cryopreservation of apical meristems of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) by vitrification. Plant Sci 78: 81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. C. Pence
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Reproduction of Endangered WildlifeCincinnati Zoo and Botanical GardenCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations