Apart from arteriosclerotic vessel disease and its consequences, other, usually rare, disorders of the cerebral blood vessels exist which can lead to focal changes in white matter, sometimes in white and gray matter, with a variety of clinical presentations. These disorders may be of infectious origin, as in syphilitic infections, but more commonly they are the expression of a generalized autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, periarthritis nodosa and temporal arteritis. Treatment and secondary prevention in these disorders may be quite important, making correct diagnosis essential.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Giant Cell Arteritis Takayasu Arteritis Cranial Nerve Palsy Cerebral Venous Thrombosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjo S. van der Knaap
    • 1
  • Jacob Valk
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Child NeurologyFree University HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyFree University HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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