Physicochemical Factors Influencing the Adjuvant-Enhanced Spray Deposition and Coverage of Foliage-Applied Agrochemicals

  • P. J. Holloway
Part of the Ernst Schering Research Foundation Workshop book series (SCHERING FOUND, volume 12)


Most pesticides are applied to foliage as sprays of water-based formulations atomised through hydraulic nozzles. It is well known that this method of transfer is inherently inefficient, resulting in only a small proportion of the dose applied actually being deposited on the intended target, with even less eventually reaching the ultimate site of biological action. In the crucial first stage of the process, from atomisation to droplet retention and deposit formation, a number of factors contribute to the shortfall, the most important of which are drift, in-flight evaporation and, especially, reflection and run-off from the target (Young 1986; Hall 1990; Hall et al. 1993). There are now increasing environmental and regulatory pressures on manufacturers to seek ways of alleviating these fundamental problems of crop spraying and, at the same time, reducing pesticide doses.


Ethylene Oxide Physicochemical Factor Dynamic Surface Tension Spray Droplet Equilibrium Surface Tension 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

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  • P. J. Holloway

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