We have seen in Chapter 7 that metals are characterized by partially filled valence bands and that the electrons in these bands give rise to electrical conduction. On the other hand, the valence bands of insulators are completely filled with electrons. Semiconductors, finally, represent in some respect a position in between metals and insulators. We mentioned in Chapter 6 that semiconductors have, at low temperatures, a completely filled valence band and a narrow gap between this and the next higher, unfilled band. The latter one is called the conduction band. We discuss this now in more detail.
KeywordsConduction Band Valence Band Fermi Energy Gate Voltage Reverse Bias
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