Lipid Synthesis and Targeting to the Mammalian Cell Surface
Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane that delimits their cytoplasm, which itself is filled with numerous intracellular membranes sometimes enclosing yet other membranous systems. It is well-organized that the various organelles subsume different functions and possess unique protein and lipid composition. A fundamental questions is how the dynamic interplay between local synthesis, modification and degradation on the one hand, and the various modes of lipid traffic with their inherent sorting potential on the other hand, result in the stable intracellular lipid heterogeneity so similar among the different cell types. This review summarizes our knowledge on lipid traffic, addresses the localization of the sorting events, and provides some working hypotheses on the mechanisms of lipid sorting with primary emphasis on the appearance of lipids at the cell surface. Cellular lipid traffic will undoubtedly be more complicated than the schemes provided here. However, the complications may turn out to be variations on a common theme.
KeywordsVesicular Transport Endocytic Pathway Plasma Membrane Domain Phospholipid Transfer Protein Plasma Membrane Cholesterol
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