Particles travelling along a beam transport line or orbiting in a circular accelerator can be lost due to a variety of causes. We ignore the trivial cases of beam loss due to technical malfunctioning of beam line components or losses caused by either complete physical obstruction of the beam line or a mismatch of vacuum chamber aperture and beam dimensions. For a well designed beam transport line or circular accelerator we distinguish two main classes for beam loss which are losses due to scattering and losses due to instabilities. While particle losses due to scattering with other particles is a single particle effect leading to a gradual loss of beam intensity, instabilities can lead to catastrophic loss of part or all of the beam. In this chapter we will concentrate on single particle losses due to interactions with residual gas atoms.
KeywordsMercury Argon Ozone Sine Librium
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