• P. J. A. Kessler
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 2)


Trees, shrubs, rarely subshrubs, or climbers. Indumentum, if present, simple, stellate or lepidote. Leaves alternate, distichous, very rarely spirally arranged (Tetrameranthus), entire, thin to coriaceous, craspedo- or brochidodromous; stipules absent. Flowers terminal, axillary or supraaxillary, rami- or cauliflorous, rarely on underground suckers, bisexual or less often unisexual, solitary, paired or in few- to many-flowered fascicles, regular, very often fleshy or brittle; bracts often present. Sepals (2−)3(−4), valvate or imbricate in bud, free or connate, at least at the base. Petals 3–6(−12), usually either in 2 whorls of 3 (or 2 or 4) or in a single whorl of 3, 4 or 6, valvate or imbricate in bud, free or more or less connate at the base, usually alternating with the sepals. Stamens numerous to very numerous and apparently spirally arranged or 3–15 and whorled. Staminodes present in a few genera; anthers linear, sometimes rounded with extrorse, rarely lateral dehiscence, occasionally transversely septate; connective mostly with a truncate dilated apex, the latter sometimes conical, pyramidal or missing; filaments short and free or rarely longer and united into a tube.


Reproductive Organ Small Tree Malayan Peninsula Stellate Hair Outer Whorl 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Bowden, W.M. 1948. Chromosome numbers in the Annonaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 377–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Christmann, M. 1986. Beiträge zur Histologie der Annonaceen-Samen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 106: 379–390.Google Scholar
  3. Corner, E. J.H. 1949. The annonaceous seed and its four integuments. New Phytol. 48: 332–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Corner, E.J.H. 1976. The seeds of the dicotyledons. 2 Vols., Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Corner, E.J.H. 1978. The freshwater swamp-forest of South Johore and Singapore. Gard. Bull. Straits Settl. Suppl. Vol. 1.Google Scholar
  6. Dahlgren, R. 1983. General aspects of angiosperm evolution and macrosystematics. Nord. J. Bot. 3: 119–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Diels, L. 1912. Über primitive Ranales der australischen Flora. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 48 (Beiblatt 107): 7–13.Google Scholar
  8. Ehrendorfer, F., Krendl, F., Habeier, E., Sauer, W. 1968. Chromosome numbers and evolution in primitive angiosperms. Taxon 17: 337–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Endress, P. K. 1980. The reproductive structures and systematic position of the Austrobaileyaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 101: 393–433.Google Scholar
  10. Engler, A., Diels L. 1901. Anonaceae. In: Engler A. (Ed.) Monographien afrikanischer Pflanzenfamilien und-gattungen. 6. Leipzig: Engelmann.Google Scholar
  11. Fedorov, An. A. (Ed.) 1969. See general references.Google Scholar
  12. Fries, R.E. 1919. Studien über die Blütenstandsverhältnisse bei der Familie Anonaceae. Acta Horti Bergiani 6: 3–48.Google Scholar
  13. Fries, R.E. 1939. Revision der Arten einiger Annonaceen-Gattungen. Acta Horti Bergiani 12: 289–577.Google Scholar
  14. Fries, R.E. 1949. Contributions to the knowledge of the Annonaceae in northern South America. Ark. Bot. 1: 329–347.Google Scholar
  15. Fries, R.E. 1959. Annonaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (Eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien edn. 2nd 17A. Berlin, Duncker and Humblot, pp 1–171.Google Scholar
  16. Gottsberger, G. 1970. Beiträge zur Biologie der Annonaceenblüten. Österr. Bot. Z. 118: 237–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guédès, M. 1982. Exine stratification, ectexine structure and angiosperm evolution. Grana 21: 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guédès, M., Le Thomas A. 1981. Le gynécée syncarpe de Monodora. C. R. Hébd. Séances Acad. Sci.III, 292: 1025–1028.Google Scholar
  19. Hesse, M., Morawetz, W., Ehrendorfer, F. 1985. Pollen ultrastructure and systematic affinities of Anaxagorea (Annonaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 148: 253–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heusden, E. C.H. van 1992. Flowers of Annonaceae: Morphology, classification, and evolution, Blumea, Suppl. 7: 1-218.Google Scholar
  21. Huber, H. 1982. Die zweikeimblättrigen Gehölze im System der Angiospermen. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 18: 59–78.Google Scholar
  22. Hutchinson, J. 1964. The genera of flowering plants. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  23. Juliano, J.B. 1935. Morphological contribution on the genus Annona Linnaeus. Philipp. Agric. 24: 528–541.Google Scholar
  24. Koek-Noorman, J., Westra, L.Y. Th., Maas, P.J.M. 1990. Studies in Annonaceae. XIII. The role of morphological characters in subsequent classifications of Annonaceae: a comparative survey. Taxon 39: 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kral, R. 1960. A revision of Asimina and Deeringothamnus. Brittonia 12: 233–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leins, P., Erbar C. 1980. Zur Entwicklung der Blüten von Monodora crispata (Annonaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 55: 11–22.Google Scholar
  27. Le Thomas, A. 1969. Annonaceae, in: Aubréville, A. (Ed.), Flore du Gabon. Paris. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.Google Scholar
  28. Le Thomas, A. 1980. Ultrastructural characters of the pollen grains of African Annonaceae and their significance for the phylogeny of primitive angiosperms I. Pollen and Spores 22: 267–342.Google Scholar
  29. Le Thomas, A. 1981. Untrastructural characters of the pollen grains of African Annonaceae and their significance for the phylogeny of primitive angiosperms II. Pollen and Spores 23: 5–36.Google Scholar
  30. Maas, P. J.M., Westra, L. Y. 1984/85. Studies in Annonaceae. II. A monograph of the genus Anaxagorea A. St. Hil. Parts 1 and 2. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 105: 73–134, 145–204.Google Scholar
  31. Metcalfe, C. R., Chalk, L. 1950. See general references.Google Scholar
  32. Mohana Rao, P.R. 1975. Seed anatomy of Artabotrys odoratissimus with discussion on chalaza, integumentary bundles and ruminate endosperm. Phytomorphology 25: 215–228.Google Scholar
  33. Morawetz, W. 1984a. Karyological races and ecology of the Brazilian Duguetia furfuracea as compared with Xylopia aromatica (Annonaceae). Flora 175: 195–209.Google Scholar
  34. Morawetz, W. 1984b. How stable are genomes of tropical woody plants? Porcelia, Annona, Drimys. Pl. Syst. Evol. 145: 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morawetz, W. 1985. A new pollen type, C-banded and fluorescent counterstained chromosomes and evolution in Guatteria and related genera (Annonaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 150: 119–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morawetz, W., Waha M. 1984. Die Epidermisskulptur als Gattungsmerkmal bei primitiven Angiospermen. Pl. Syst. Evol. 144: 73–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morawetz W., Waha, M. 1985. A new pollen type, C-banded and fluorchrome counterstained chromosomes, and evolution in Guatteria and related genera. Pl. Syst. Evol. 150: 119–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Okada, H., Ueda K. 1984. Cytotaxonomical studies on Asian Annonaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 144: 165–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Periasamy, K., Swamy B. G. L. 1959. Studies in the Annonaceae. Microsporogenesis in Cananga odorata and Miliusa wightiana. Phytomorphology 9: 251–263.Google Scholar
  40. Prantl, K. 1891. Anonaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl K. (Eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien III, 2.Google Scholar
  41. Ronse Decraene, L.P., Smets, E. 1990. The floral development of Popowia whitei (Annonaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 10: 411–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Santos, J.K. 1929. Histological and microchemical studies on the bark and leaf of Artabotrys suaveolens Blume from the Philippines. Philipp. J. Sci. 38: 269–282.Google Scholar
  43. Sastri, R.L.N. 1969. Comparative morphology and phylogeny of the Ranales. Biol. Rev. 44: 294–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sauer, W., Ehrendorfer F. 1984. Notes on the karyosystematics of Annonaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 146: 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schnarf, K. 1931. Vergleichende Embryologie der Angiospermen. Berlin: Borntraeger.Google Scholar
  46. Seiten, A. K. van 1992. Fruits ans seeds of Annonaceae. Morphology and its significance for classification and identification. Bibl. Bot. 142.Google Scholar
  47. Sinclair, J. 1955. The revision of the Malayan Annonaceae. Gard. Bull. Straits Settl. 14: 149–516.Google Scholar
  48. Sinnott, E.W. 1914. Investigations on the phylogeny of angiosperms. I. The anatomy of the node as an aid in the classification of angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 1: 303–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith, G. H. 1928. Vascular anatomy of the Ranalian flowers II. Ranuculaceae, Menispermaceae, Calycanthaceae, Annonaceae. Bot. Gaz. 85: 152–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tanaka, R., Okada, H. 1972. Karyological studies in four species of Annonaceae, a primitive angiosperm. J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., Ser. B, Div. 2, Bot. 14: 85–105.Google Scholar
  51. ter Welle, B.J.H., van Rooden, J. 1982. Systematic wood anatomy of Desmopsis, Sapranthus, and Stenanona. IAWA Bull. 3: 15–23.Google Scholar
  52. Treub, M. 1882. Sur une nouvelle catégorie des plantes grimpantes. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 3: 344–373.Google Scholar
  53. Verdcourt, B. 1971. Annonaceae. In: Milne-Redhead, E., Polhill. R.M. (Eds.) Flora of tropical East Africa. London, Tonbridge: Crown Agents, pp 1–131.Google Scholar
  54. Walker, J.W 1971. Pollen morphology, phytogeography and phylogeny of the Annonaceae. Contrib. Gray Herb. 202: 3–131.Google Scholar
  55. Walker, J.W 1972. Contributions to the pollen morphology and phylogeny of the Annonaceae II. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 65: 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. A. Kessler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations