Scrambling or twining woody climbers, aromatic. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged, often distally congested; blade simple, thin coriaceous or chartaceous; margin denticulate or sinuate, sometimes entire; stipules absent. Flowers solitary, paired or sometimes glomerulate, axillary or subterminal. Flowers small, white, greenish or creamy yellow, sometimes pink or red, unisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous; receptacle short-conical, often highly modified; perianth-segments few to many (5–24), 1 to several seriate, the outermost and innermost ones usually reduced in size and modified in texture. Stamens few to numerous (4–50, rarely to 80), varying from almost free to totally fused, development centripetal; anthers basifixed, tetrasporangiate, ovate oblong, opening laterally by 2 longitudinal slits; filaments short, connate below or totally fused; connective slightly swollen or greatly broadened. Carpels many to numerous (12–100, rarely to 300), spirally arranged in few to many series on an obovoid to ellipsoid (Kadsura) or conical to cylindrical (Schisandra) torus to form a subglobose or ellipsoid mass; style subulate or conical, (pseudo-) stigma subpeltate; ovary ovoid to obovoid; ovules 2–5, rarely to 11, anatropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate, ventrally attached or pendulous. Fruit an aggregate of subglobose or ellipsoid berries on the greatly enlarged (Kadsura) or elongated (Schisandra) torus. Seeds 1–5 (rarely more) in a fruit, subglobose or ovoid, laterally flattened; testa hard or brittle, smooth or rugulose; endosperm copious, oily; embryo small.
KeywordsCellulose Hydroxyl Brittle Carboxyl Flavonoid
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