• H. E. K. Hartmann
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 2)


Predominantly succulent, annual to perennial herbs, subshrubs or shrubs. Leaves mostly opposite, simple and entire, epidermis with bladder idioblasts, or uniform and xeromorphic, often pubescent; base of petioles rarely with stipuliform appendages or leaves sessile with a connate leaf sheath. Cymose inflorescences of principally dichasial pattern complete or in various derived forms, mostly terminal, often seemingly axillary, flowers often solitary; flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous to perigynous or epigynous; perianth elements (3−)5(−8), free portions often unequal and with dorsal subapical appendages, basally connate and adnate to the filaments, thus forming a perianth-stamen tube, inner surface of upper portion petaloid or green; androecial elements 4 to many; if many, the outer primordia developing often into petaloid organs (= petals), filaments rarely connate at base, anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; ovary syncarpous, (1−)5(−∞)-carpellate, placentation axile, basal or parietal, ovules one to many per carpel, anacampylotropous or campylotropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate, sometimes pendulous. Fruits mostly hygrochastic loculicidal, rarely septicidal or circumscissile capsules, sometimes hard and indehiscent, rarely drupaceous, occasionally in aggregates. Seeds mostly ± ovoid, rarely arillate, with a curved peripheral embryo, and voluminous starchy perisperm, endosperm reduced to a layer enveloping the radicle.


Crystal Layer Subsidiary Cell Suitable Climate Calyx Lobe Bladder Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Behnke, H.-D. 1981. Sieve-element characters. Nord. J. Bot. 1: 381–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhambie, S., Joshi, M.C., Gupta, M.L. 1977. Anatomical studies on certain members of Aizoaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 85: 344–406.Google Scholar
  3. Bittrich, V. 1987. Untersuchungen zu Merkmalsbestand, Gliederung und Abgrenzung der Unterfamilie Mesembryanthemoideae (Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl). Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 21: 5–116.Google Scholar
  4. Bittrich, V. 1990. Systematic studies in Aizoaceae. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 23 b: 491–507.Google Scholar
  5. Bittrich, V., Hartmann, H. 1988. The Aizoaceae — a new approach. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 97: 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bittrich, V., Struck, M. 1989. What is primitive in Mesembryanthemaceae? An analysis of evolutionary polarity of character states. S. Afr. J. Bot. 55: 321–331.Google Scholar
  7. Bogle, A. L. 1970. The genera of Molluginaceae and Aizoaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 432–463.Google Scholar
  8. Carlquist, S. 1983. Intercontinental dispersal. Sonderb. naturwiss. Ver. Hamb. 7: 37–47.Google Scholar
  9. Carolin, R.C., Jacobs, S.W., Vesk, M. 1978. Kranz cells and mesophyll in the Chenopodiales. Aust. J. Bot. 26: 683–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chinnock, R.J. 1983. The Australian genus Gunniopsis Pax (Aizoaceae). J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 6(2): 133–179.Google Scholar
  11. Dean, W.R.J., Milton, S.J., Siegfried, W.R. 1990. Dispersal of seeds as nest material by birds in semi-arid Karoo shrubland. Ecology (US) 71: 1299–1306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dehn, M. (1992). Untersuchungen zum Verwandtschaftskreis der Ruschiinae (Mesembryanthemaceae). Mitt. Inst. Allg. Botanik Hamb. 24: 91–198.Google Scholar
  13. Dnyansagar, V.R., Malkhede, S.R. 1963. Development of the seed of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. B, Bangalore 57: 343–355.Google Scholar
  14. Dupont, S. 1968. Epidemies et plantules des mesembryanthemacées. Systematique, evolution. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 104: 7–64.Google Scholar
  15. Dupont, S. 1977. Notes on the pollen of the Mesembryanthemaceae. Principal types, variation and problems requiring study. Cact. Succ. J. Gr. Britain 39: 57–63.Google Scholar
  16. Eckardt, T. 1976. Classical morphological features of centrospermous families. Pl. Syst. Evol. 126: 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ehler, N., Barthlott, W. 1978. Die epicuticulare Skulptur der Testa-Zellwände einiger Mesembryanthemaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 99: 329–340.Google Scholar
  18. Ehrendorfer, F. 1976. Closing remarks. Systematics and evolution of centrospermous families. Pl. Syst. Evol. 126: 99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eichler, A.W. 1878. Blüthendiagramme, 2. Teil. Leipzig: Engelmann, pp. 119–125.Google Scholar
  20. Friedrich, H.-C. 1970. Aizoaceae. In: Merxmüller, H. (Ed.) Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrika 27: 58–74.Google Scholar
  21. Gess, S. K., Gess, F. W. 1989. Flower visiting by masarid wasps in southern Africa (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Masaridae). Ann. Cape Prov. Mus. (nat. Hist.) 18: 95–134.Google Scholar
  22. Hagerup, O. 1932. On pollination in the extremely hot air at Timbuktu. Dan. Bot. Ark. 8: 1–20.Google Scholar
  23. Hartmann, H. 1976. Monographie der Gattung Odontophorus N.E.Br. (Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 97: 161–225.Google Scholar
  24. Hartmann, H. 1978. Monographie der Gattung Argyroderma N.E.Br. (Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl). Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 15: 121–235.Google Scholar
  25. Hartmann, H. 1979. Surface structures of leaves: their ecological and taxonomical significanca in members of the subfamily Ruschioideae Schw. (Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl). In: Cutler, D.F., Hartmann, H. (Eds.) Scanning electron microscope studies of the leaf epidermis in some succulents. Trop. subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 28: 31–55 (473)–(497).Google Scholar
  26. Hartmann, H. 1983. Untersuchungen zum Merkmalsbestand und zur Taxonomie der Subtribus Leipoldtiinae (Mesembryanthemaceae). Bibl. Bot. 136: 1–67.Google Scholar
  27. Hartmann, H. 1986. Chromosome numbers in the genus Cephalophyllum N.E.Br. (Mesembryanthemaceae). Cact. Succ. J. America 58: 263–266.Google Scholar
  28. Hartmann, H. 1987. Phytogeography of the subtribe Leipoldtiinae (Mesembryanthemaceae). Bothalia 17: 205–212.Google Scholar
  29. Hartmann, H. 1988. Fruit types in Mesembryanthema. Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 63: 313–349.Google Scholar
  30. Hartmann, H. 1989. Monographien der Subtribus Leipoldtiinae-VIII. Monographie der Gattung Cephalophyllum (Mesembryanthemaceae). Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 22: 93–187.Google Scholar
  31. Hartmann, H. 1991. Mesembryanthema. Contrib. Bolus Herb. 13: 75–157.Google Scholar
  32. Hartmann, H., Dehn, M. 1987. Monographien der Leipoldtiinae. VII. Monographie der Gattung Cheiridopsis (Mesembryanthemaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 108: 567–663.Google Scholar
  33. Hartmann, H., Niesler, I. 1991. On the identity of Trichodiadema schimperi (Engl.) Herre (Mesembryanthema). Cact. Succ. J. America 63: 143–149.Google Scholar
  34. Hegnauer, R. 1964. See general references.Google Scholar
  35. Hofmann, U. 1973. Morphologische Untersuchungen zu Umgrenzung und Gliederung der Aizoaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 93: 247–324.Google Scholar
  36. Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1960. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche, morphologische und systematische Untersuchungen an Mesembryanthemen. Feddes Repert. 63: 1–104.Google Scholar
  37. Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1971. Zur Morphologie und Taxonomie der Mitrophyllinae Schwantes. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 84: 655–660.Google Scholar
  38. Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1980. Der Haarapparat (“Diadem”) der Gattung Trichodiadema Schwant. (Mesembryanthemaceae). Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 17: 145–163.Google Scholar
  39. Ihlenfeldt, H.-D., Straka, H. 1962. Über die systematische Stellung und Gliederung der Mesembryanthemen. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 74: 485–492.Google Scholar
  40. Ihlenfeldt, H.-D., Struck, M. 1987. Morphologie und Taxonomie der Dorotheanthinae Schwantes (Mesembryanthemaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 61: 411–453.Google Scholar
  41. Jürgens, N. 1987. Untersuchungen zur Ökologie sukkulenter Pflanzen des südlichen Afrika. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 21: 139–365.Google Scholar
  42. Kajale, L.B. 1940. Structure and development of the male and female gametophytes of Sesuvium portulacastrum Linn. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India, Sect. B, 10: 82–89.Google Scholar
  43. Kapil, R.N., Prakash, N. 1966. Coexistence of mono-, bi-and tetrasporic embryo sacs in Delosperma cooperi (Hook. f.) L. Bol. (Aizoaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 42: 381–392.Google Scholar
  44. Knuth, P. 1904. Handbuch der Blütenbiologie 3. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, p. 277.Google Scholar
  45. Leuenberger, B.E. 1976a. Pollen morphology of the Cactaceae — an SEM survey of exine sculpturing and its tentative implications for taxonomy and phylogeny. Cact. Succ. J. Gr. Britain 38: 79–94.Google Scholar
  46. Leuenberger, B.E. 1976b. Die Pollenmorphologie der Cactaceae und ihre Bedeutung für die Systematik. Vaduz: J. Cramer in A. R. Gantner Verlag.Google Scholar
  47. Melville, R. 1952. Trianthema pentandra L. and some related species. Kew Bull. 1952: 261–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Milton, S.J., Siegfried, W.R., Dean, W.R.J. 1990. The distribution of epizoochoric plant species: a clue to the prehistoric use of arid Karoo rangelands by large herbivores. J. Biogeo. 17: 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nel, G.C. 1953. The Gibbaeum handbook. Edited by P.G. Jordaan, E. W. Shurly. London: Blanford Press.Google Scholar
  50. Nowicke, J.W. 1975. Pollen morphology in the order Centrospermae. Grana 15: 51–77.Google Scholar
  51. Pax, F., Hoffmann, K. 1934. Aizoaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (Eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Leipzig, Engelmann 2nd edn., pp. 16c: 179–233.Google Scholar
  52. Poppendieck, H.-H., Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1978. Delosperma harazianum (Deflers) Poppendieck und Ihlenfeldt, eine wenig bekannte Mesembryanthemaceae aus dem Südjemen. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 16: 183–187.Google Scholar
  53. Prakash, N. 1967. Aizoaceae-a study of its embryology and systematics. Bot. Not. 120: 305–323.Google Scholar
  54. Rappa, F. 1912. Per una Classificatione naturale dei Mesembrianthemi. Boll. Reale Orto Bot. Giardino Colon. Palermo 11: 21–36.Google Scholar
  55. Richardson, P.M. 1981. Flavonoids of some controversial members of the Caryophyllales (Centrospermae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 138: 227–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rodman, J.E., Oliver, M.K., Nakamura, R.R., McClammer Jr., J.U., Bledsoe, A.H. 1984. A taxonomic analysis and revised classification of Centrospermae. Syst. Bot. 9: 297–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Roland, F. 1967. Mise en évidence d’une membrane aperturale particulière dans le pollen de quelques Aizoacées. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 264: 2986–2988.Google Scholar
  58. Rowley, G. 1978. Reunion of some genera of Mesembryanthemaceae. Nat. Cact. Succ. J. Gr. Britain 33: 6–9.Google Scholar
  59. Schmid, W. 1925. Morphologische, anatomische und entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Mesembryanthemum pseudotruncatellum Berger. Beibl. Vierteljahrsschr. naturforsch. Ges. Zür. 8: 1–80, tab.Google Scholar
  60. Schütte, K.H., Steyn, R., Westhuizen, van der, M. 1967. Crassulacean acid metabolism in South African succulents: a preliminary investigation into its occurrence in various families. J.S. Afr. Bot. 33: 107–110.Google Scholar
  61. Schwantes, G. 1952. Die Früchte der Mesembryanthemaceen. Vierteljahrsschr. naturforsch. Ges. Zür. 97: Beih. 2: 1–38.Google Scholar
  62. Sharma, A., Ghosh, S. 1968. Cytotaxonomy of Ficoideae. Cytologia 33: 439–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Skvarla, J.J., Nowicke, J.W. 1976. Ultrastructure of pollen exine in centrospermous families. Pl. Syst. Evol. 126: 55–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Straka, H. 1955. Anatomische und entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Früchten paraspermer Mesembranthemen. Nova Acta Leopold. 17(118): 127–190.Google Scholar
  65. Thorne, R.F. 1983. Proposed new realignments in the angiosperms. Nord. J. Bot. 3: 85–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Troll, W., Weberling, F. 1981. Infloreszenzstudien an Aizoaceen, Mesembryanthemaceen und Tetragoniaceen. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 35: 1–99 (195)–(289).Google Scholar
  67. Vogel, S. 1954. Blütenbiologische Typen als Elemente der Sippengliederung dargestellt anhand der Flora Südafrikas. Bot. Stud. 1: 128–141.Google Scholar
  68. Willert, von, D. J. 1979. Vorkommen und Regulation des CAM bei Mittagsblumengewächsen (Mesembryanthemaceae). Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 92: 133–144.Google Scholar
  69. Willert, von, D.J., Curdts, E., Willert, von, K. 1977. Veränderung der PEP-Carboxylase während einer durch NaCl geförderten Ausbildung eines CAM bei Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 171: 101–107.Google Scholar
  70. Yeaton, R.I., Esler, K.J. 1990. The dynamics of a succulent karoo vegetation. Vegetatio 88: 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zandonella, P. 1972. Le nectaire floral des Centrospermales. Localisation, morphologie, anatomie, histologie, cytologie. Diss. L’Université Claude-Bernard, Lyon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. E. K. Hartmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations