• C. A. Todzia
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 2)


Trees, shrubs or herbs. Leaves opposite, decussate; blades simple, pinnately veined, usually glabrous, margins dentate; petioles more or less connate at the base, stipules present, petiolar.


Female Flower Male Flower Staminate Flower Pistillate Flower Subsidiary Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Baranova, M. 1983. On laterocytic stomatotype in angiosperms. Brittonia 35: 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Behnke, H.D. 1971. Sieve-tube plastids of Magnoliidae and Ranunculidae in relation to systematics. Taxon 20: 723–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Behnke, H.D. 1972. Sieve-tube plastids in relation to angiosperm systematics — an attempt towards a classification by ultrastructural analysis. Bot. Rev. 38: 155–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burger, W.C. 1977. The Piperales and the monocots. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 43: 345–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlquist, S. 1983. Wood anatomy of Bubbia (Winteraceae), with comments on origin of vessels in dicotyledons. Amer. J. Bot. 70: 578–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlquist, S. 1984. Wood anatomy of Trimeniaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 144: 103–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlquist, S. 1987. Presence of vessels in Sarcandra (Chloranthaceae); comments on vessel origins in angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 74: 1765–1771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlquist, S. 1990. Wood anatomy of Ascarina (Chloranthaceae) and the tracheid-vessel element transition. Aliso 12: 667–684.Google Scholar
  9. Carlquist, S. 1992a. Wood anatomy of Hedyosmum (Chloranthaceae) and the tracheid-vessel element transistion. Aliso 13: 447–462.Google Scholar
  10. Carlquist, S. 1992b. Wood anatomy and stem of Chloranthus: Summary of wood anatomy of Chloranthaceae, with comments on relationships, vessellessness, and the origin of Monocotyledons. IAWA Bull. II, 13: 3–16.Google Scholar
  11. Cordemoy, J. de. 1863. Monographie du groupe des Chloranthacées. Adansonia 3: 280–310.Google Scholar
  12. Crane, P.R., Friis, E.M., Pedersen, K.R. 1989. Reproductive structure and function in Cretaceous Chloranthaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 165: 211–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edwards, J. G. 1920. Flower and seed of Hedyosmum nutans. Bot. Gaz. 70: 409–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ehrendorfer, F., Krendl, F., Habeier, F., Sauer, E. and Sauer, W. 1968. Chromosome numbers and evolution in primitive angiosperms. Taxon 17: 337–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Endress, P.K. 1986. Reproductive structures and phylogenetic significance of extant primitive angiosperms. Pl. Syst. Evol. 152: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Endress, P.K. 1987. The Chloranthaceae: reproductive structures and phylogenetic position. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 109: 153–226.Google Scholar
  17. Friis, E. M., Crane, P. R., Pederson, K. R. 1986. Floral evidence for Cretaceous chloranthoid angiosperms. Nature 320: 163–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hickey, L.J., Wolfe, J. A. 1975. The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: vegetative morphology. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 62: 538–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jérémie, J. 1980. Notes sur le genre Ascarina (Chloranthaceae) en Nouvelle-Calédonie et à Madagascar. Adansonia, ser 2,20: 273–285.Google Scholar
  20. Kuprianova, L. A. 1967. Palynological data for the history of the Chloranthaceae. Pollen Spores 9: 95–100.Google Scholar
  21. Leroy, J.-P 1983. The origin of angiosperms: an unrecognized ancestral dicotyledon, Hedyosmum (Chloranthales), with a strobiloid flower is living today. Taxon 32: 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ludlow-Wiechers, B., Martínez-Hernandez, E. 1978. Catálogo Palinológico para la Flora de Veracruz. No. 1. Palinología de la Familia Chloranthaceae de Veracruz. Biotica 3: 3–8.Google Scholar
  23. Metcalfe, C.R. 1987. Anatomy of the dicotyledons, Vol.III, 2nd edn. Oxford: Claredon Press.Google Scholar
  24. Moore, L.B. 1977. The flowers of Ascarina lucida Hook. f. (Chloranthaceae). New Z. J. Bot. 15: 491–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morawetz, W. 1986. Remarks on karyological differentiation patterns in tropical woody plants. Pl. Syst. Evol. 152: 49–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Occhioni, P. 1954. Contribução ao estudo da familia Chloranthaceae com especial referenda ao gênero Hedyosmum Sw. Riode Janeiro.Google Scholar
  27. Patel, R.N. 1975. Wood anatomy of the dicotyledons indigenous to New Zealand. 10. Chloranthaceae. New Z. J. Bot. 13: 141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raven, P.H., Kyhos, D.W., Cave, M.S. 1971. Chromosome numbers and relationships in Annoniflorae. Taxon 20: 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sampson, F.B., Endress, P.K. 1984. Pollen morphology in the Trimeniaceae. Grana 23: 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Skutch, A.F. 1927. Peculiarities in the structure of the stem, related to the leaf-sheath, in Hedyosmum. Ann. Bot. (London) 41: 715–730.Google Scholar
  31. Solms, H.A. 1868. Chloranthaceae. In D.C. Prodr. Syst. Nat. Reg. Veg. 14: 472–485.Google Scholar
  32. Stuchlick, L. 1984. Morfología de los granos de polen de las Chloranthaceae y Cannellaceae Cubanas. Acta Bot. Hung. 30: 321–328.Google Scholar
  33. Swamy, B. G. L. 1953a. Sarcandra irvingbaileyi, a new species of vessel-less dicotyledon from South India. Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 19: 301–306.Google Scholar
  34. Swamy, B.G.L. 1953b. The morphology and relationships of the Chloranthaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 34: 375–411.Google Scholar
  35. Takahashi, A. 1985. Wood anatomical studies of Polycarpicae. I. Magnoliales. Sci. Rep. Osaka Univ. 34: 29–83.Google Scholar
  36. Thierry, R. 1913. Contribution à l’étude anatomique des Chloranthacées. Thesis, Paris. Also: Trav. Lab. Mat. Méd., Paris 9, 158 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Todzia, C. A. 1988. Chloranthaceae. Fl. Neotropica Monograph 48: 1–139.Google Scholar
  38. Todzia, C.A., Keating, R.C. 1991. Leaf architecture of the Chloranthaceae. Ann. Bot. Gard. 78: 476–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Upchurch, Jr., G.R. 1984. Cuticle evolution in early Cretaceous angiosperms from the Potomac Group of Virginia and Maryland. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 71: 522–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Verdcourt, B. 1985. Notes on Malesian Chloranthaceae. Kew Bull. 40: 213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Verdcourt, B. 1986. Chloranthaceae. Fl. Malesiana I. 10(2): 123–144.Google Scholar
  42. Vijayaraghavan, M.R. 1964. Morphology and embryology of a vesselless dicotyledon Sarcandra irvingbaileyi Swamy, and its systematic position in the Chloranthaceae. Phytomorphology 14: 429–441.Google Scholar
  43. Walker, J. W., Walker, A. G. 1984. Ultrastructure of Lower Cre-tacous angiosperm pollen and the origin and early evolution of flowering plants. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 71: 464–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Todzia

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations