• K. Kubitzki
  • C. C. Berg
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 2)


Terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic woody plants with aerial roots or stilt-roots and with a reduced system of laticiferous ducts. Leaves spirally arranged, petiolate, pinnately veined, subtriplinerved, or palmately veined in entire to palmately incised leaves, or radially veined in peltate leaves; stipules fused, mostly fully amplexicaul. Plants strictly dioecious, inflorescences unisexual, the staminate ones cymosely branched, the pistillate ones cymosely branched, capitate, spicate, subumbellate, or both staminate and pistillate inflorescences forming a pedunculate, digitate cluster of spikes enveloped by a caducous spathe. Staminate flowers with 4-2 free or fused tepals, stamens 4-1, straight in bud or sometimes inflexed, but then straightening gradually at anthesis; a distinct pistillode mostly lacking. Pistillate flowers with a tubular, 4-2-lobed to 4-2-dentate perianth, ovary superior, stigma 1, lingulate to capitate-penicillate to peltate, ovule (sub)orthotropous, basal or subbasal. Fruit small and free or large and either adnate to a fleshy fruiting perianth or free, endocarp crustaceous or woody, endosperm mostly present in small seeds, absent in large seeds, embryo small with flat cotyledons in small seeds; large and with thick cotyledons in large seeds.


Staminate Flower Pistillate Flower Aerial Root Staminate Inflorescence Pistillate Inflorescence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Selected Bibliography

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Kubitzki
  • C. C. Berg

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