Advertisement

Caryophyllaceae

  • V. Bittrich
Chapter
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 2)

Abstract

Annual or perennial herbs, or subshrubs, rarely shrubs or small trees, usually monoecious, rarely gynodioecious or dioecious. Stems often swollen at the nodes, usually with anomalous secondary growth in older stems, also often occurring in the roots. Leaves opposite, decussate or apparently whorled, very rarely alternate, simple, entire, often connate at the base, sometimes succulent; stipules wanting, more rarely present, then mostly scarious. Flowers commonly protandrous, actinomorphic, very rarely weakly zygomorphic, usually bisexual, rarely unisexual, hypogynous or perigynous, sometimes obdiplostemonous. Inflorescences mostly dichasial, sometimes monochasial, rarely flowers solitary. Sepals (4−)5 or rarely more or fewer, imbricate, rarely valvate, completely free or connate for often most of their length, sometimes subtended by bracts (epicalyx). Petals (4−)5 or rarely more, free, aestivation contorted or rarely imbricate, entire, emarginate, bifid or lacerate, clawed or not, sometimes with coronal scales at the top of the claw, occasionally very small or absent.

Keywords

Perennial Herb Annual Herb Involucral Bract Calyx Tube Partial Inflorescence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Al-Eisawi, D. 1989. Pollen morphology of Caryophyllaceae in Jordan. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 28: 599–614.Google Scholar
  2. Bate-Smith, E.C. 1962. See general references.Google Scholar
  3. Bedell, H.G. 1980. A taxonomic and morphological re-evaluation of Stegnospermaceae (Caryophyllales). Syst. Bot. 5: 419–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behnke, H.-D. 1976. Die Siebelement-Plastiden der Caryophyllaceae, eine weitere spezifische Form der P-Typ-Plastiden bei Centrospermen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 95: 327–333.Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, H.-D. 1982. Geocarpon minimum: sieve-element plastids as additional evidence for its inclusion in the Caryophyllaceae. Taxon 31: 45–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentham, G. 1862. Notes on Caryophylleae, Portulaceae, and some allied Orders. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 6: 55–77.Google Scholar
  7. Bittrich, V., Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1984. Morphologie früher Keimungsstadien bei Mesembryanthemaceae: eine Anpassung an aride Umweltbedingungen. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 19: 123–139.Google Scholar
  8. Bocquet, G. 1959 (1960). The structure of the placental column in the genus Melandrium (Caryophyllaceae). Phytomorphology 9: 217–221.Google Scholar
  9. Bogle, A.L., Swain, T., Thomas, R.D., Kohn, E.D. 1971. Geocarpon: Aizoaceae or Caryophyllaceae? Taxon 20: 473–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brantjes, N.B.M. 1978. Sensory responses to flowers in nightflying moths. In: Richards, A.J. (Ed.) The pollination of flowers by insects. London Academic Press, pp. 13-19.Google Scholar
  11. Brantjes, N.B.M., Leemans, J. A. A.M. 1976. Silene otites (Caryophyllaceae) pollinated by nocturnal lepidoptera and mosquitoes. Acta Bot. Neerl. 25: 281–295.Google Scholar
  12. Brodie, H.J. 1951. The splash-cup dispersal mechanism in plants. Can. J. Bot. 29: 224–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burret, F., Rabesa, Z., Zandonella, P., Voirin, B. 1981. Contribution biochemique à la systématique de l’Ordre des Centrospermales. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 9: 257–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buxbaum, F. 1961. Vorläufige Untersuchungen über Umfang, systematische Stellung und Gliederung der Caryophyllales (Centrospermae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 36: 1–56.Google Scholar
  15. Candau, P. 1978. Palinologia de Caryophyllaceae del sur de Espana: 1. Subfamilia Paronychioideae. Lagascalia 7: 143–157.Google Scholar
  16. Carolin, R. C. 1982. A review and critique of studies on the phytogeography of arid Australia. In: Barker, W. R., Greenslade, P. J. M. (Eds.) Evolution of the fauna and flora of arid Australia. Frewville: Peacock, pp. 119–123.Google Scholar
  17. Carolin, R.C., Jacobs, S.W.L., Vesk, M. 1978. Kranz cells and mesophyll in the Chenopodiales. Aust. J. Bot. 26: 683–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chaudhri, M. N. 1968. A revision of the Paronychiinae. Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijksuniv. Utrecht 285: 1–440.Google Scholar
  19. Chrtek, J., Slavíková, Z. 1987. Leitbündelanordnung in den Kronblättern von ausgewählten Arten der Familie Stellariaceae. Preslia 60: 11–21.Google Scholar
  20. Contandriopoulos, J., Favarger, C. 1983. Sur quelques espèces de Turquie du genre Arenaria L. (étude cytotaxonomique). Candollea 38: 733–743.Google Scholar
  21. Cronquist, A. 1981. See general references.Google Scholar
  22. Crookston, R.K., Moss, D.N. 1970. The relation of carbon dioxide compensation and chlorenchymatous bundle sheaths in leaves of dicots. Plant Physiol. 46: 564–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crow, G. E. 1978. A taxonomic revision of Sagina (Caryophyllaceae) in North America. Rhodora 80: 1–91.Google Scholar
  24. Crow, G.E. 1979. The systematic significance of seed morphology in Sagina (Caryophyllaceae) under scanning electron microscopy. Brittonia 31: 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis, C. L. 1966. See general references.Google Scholar
  26. Eckardt, Th. 1955. Nachweis der Blattbürtigkeit (“Phyllosporie”) grundständiger Samenanlagen bei Centrospermen. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 68: 167–182.Google Scholar
  27. Eckardt, Th. 1964. Caryophyllaceae. In: Melchior, H. (Ed.) Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 12th edn. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger, pp. 93–96.Google Scholar
  28. Eckert, G. 1966. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche und blütenanatomische Untersuchungen zum Problem der Obdiplostemonie. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 85: 523–604.Google Scholar
  29. Ehrendorfer, F. 1976. Closing remarks: systematics and evolution of centrospermous families. Pl. Syst. Evol. 126: 99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eichler, A.W. 1878. Blüthendiagramme II. Theil. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.Google Scholar
  31. Engel, T., Barthlott, W. 1988. Micromorphology of epicuticular waxes in centrosperms. Pl. Syst. Evol. 161: 71–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Erdtman, G. 1952. See general references.Google Scholar
  33. Erdtman, G. 1968. On the exine in Stellaria crassipes Hult. Grana Palynol. 8: 271–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Erdtman, G., Berglund, B., Praglowski, J. 1961. An introduction to a Scandinavian pollen flora. Stockholm: Almqvist, Wiksell.Google Scholar
  35. Fernandes, A., Leitão, M.T. 1971. Contribution à la connaissance cytotaxonomique des Spermatophyta du Portugal. III. Caryophyllaceae. Bol. Soc. Broteriana 45: 167–176.Google Scholar
  36. Gibbs, R.D. 1974. Chemotaxonomy of flowering plants, Vol.2. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Gilbert, M.G., 1987. The taxonomic position of the genera Telephium and Corrigiola. Taxon 36: 47–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greuter, W., Bürdet, H.M., Chaloner, W.G. et al. 1988. International code of botanical nomenclature. Königstein: Koeltz.Google Scholar
  39. Hegnauer, R. 1964, 1989. See general references.Google Scholar
  40. Iwarsson, M. 1977. Pollen morphology of East African Caryophyllaceae. Grana 16: 15–22.Google Scholar
  41. Joesting, F. 1902. Beiträge zur Anatomie der Sperguleen, Polycarpeen, Paronychieen, Sclerantheen und Pterantheen. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 12: 139–181.Google Scholar
  42. Kay, Q.O.N., Lack, A. J., Bamber, F.C., Davies, C.R. 1984. Differences between sexes in floral morphology, nectar production and insect visits in a dioecious species, Silene dioica. New. Phytol. 98: 515–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kinzel, H. 1989. Calcium in the vacuoles and cell walls of plant tissue. Flora 182: 99–125.Google Scholar
  44. Khoshoo, T.N., Bhatia, S.K. 1965. Biosystematics of Indian plants. 1. Saponaria vaccaria Linn. Bull. nat. bot. Gard. (Lucknow) 116: 1–54.Google Scholar
  45. Larcher, W. 1980. Physiological plant ecology, 2nd. edn. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lüders, H. 1907. Systematische Untersuchungen über die Caryophyllaceen mit einfachem Diagramm. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40 Beibl. 91: 1–38.Google Scholar
  47. Magin, N. 1984. Die “Frucht” von Pollichia campestris Aiton (Caryophyllaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 104: 455–467.Google Scholar
  48. Mattfeld, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der systematischen Gliederung und geographischen Verbreitung der Gattung Minuartia. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57 Beibl. 127: 13–63.Google Scholar
  49. Mattfeld, J. 1934. Nachtrag zu den Caryophyllaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (Eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd edn., Leipzig: Engelmann 16c: 365–367.Google Scholar
  50. Mattfeld, J. 1938. Über eine angebliche Drymaria Australiens nebst Bemerkungen über die Staminaldrüsen und die Petalen der Caryophyllaceae. Feddes Repert. Beih. 100: 147–164.Google Scholar
  51. McNeill, J. 1962. Taxonomic studies in the Alsinoideae: I. Generic and infra-generic groups. Notes R. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 24: 79–155.Google Scholar
  52. McNeill, J. 1978. Silene alba and Silene dioica in North America and the generic delimitation of Lychnis, Melandrium, and Silene (Caryophyllaceae). Can. J. Bot. 56: 297–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McNeill, J. 1980. The delimitation of Arenaria (Caryophyllaceae) and related genera in North America, with 11 combinations in Minuartia. Rhodora 82: 495–501.Google Scholar
  54. McNeill, J., Bassett, I. J. 1974. Pollen morphology and the infrageneric classification of Minuartia (Caryophyllaceae). Can. J. Bot. 52: 1225–1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McNeill, J., Crompton, W. 1978. Pollen dimorphism in Silene alba (Caryophyllaceae). Can. J. Bot. 56: 1280–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Meikle, R. D. 1977. Flora of Cyprus, Vol. 1. Kew: The BenthamMoxon Trust.Google Scholar
  57. Melzheimer, V. 1974. Bemerkungen zur Cytologie einiger Arten der Gattung Silene L. von der Balkan-Halbinsel. Candollea 29: 337–343.Google Scholar
  58. Melzheimer, V. 1975. Pollensystematische Untersuchungen in der Gattung Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 95: 215–225.Google Scholar
  59. Melzheimer, V. 1977. Biosystematische Revision einiger Silene-Arten (Caryophyllaceae) der Balkanhalbinsel (Griechenland). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 98: 1–92.Google Scholar
  60. Melzheimer, V. 1988. Silene: In: Rechinger, K.H. (Ed.) Flora Iranica Cont. 163. Graz: Akademische Druck-und Verlagsanstalt, pp. 341–508.Google Scholar
  61. Melzheimer, V., Damboldt, J. 1973. Zur Morphologie und Cytologie tetraploider Sippen von Silène vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae). Willdenowia 7: 83–100.Google Scholar
  62. Metcalfe, C. R., Chalk, L. 1950. See general references.Google Scholar
  63. Meunier, A. 1890. Les téguments séminaux des Cyclospermées. Cellule 6: 299–392.Google Scholar
  64. Miège, J., Greuter, W. 1973. Nombres chromosomiques de quelques plants récoltées en Créte. Ann. Mus. Goulandris 1: 105–111.Google Scholar
  65. Müller, J. 1981. Fossil pollen records of extant angiosperms. Bot. Rev. 47: 1–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Murbeck, S. 1920. Beiträge zur Biologie der Wüstenpflanzen. II. Die Synaptospermie. Lunds Univ. Arsskr. N.F. Avd. 2. 17(1): 1–53.Google Scholar
  67. Netolitzky, F. 1926. Anatomie der Angiospermen-Samen. Handbuch Pflanzenanat., II. Abt., 2. Teil, Bd.9. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger.Google Scholar
  68. Neumayer, H. 1923. Die Frage der Gattungsabgrenzung innerhalb der Silenoideen. Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 72: (53)–(59).Google Scholar
  69. Nowicke, J.W. 1975. Pollen morphology in the order Centro-spermae. Grana 15: 51–77.Google Scholar
  70. Nowicke, J.W, Skvarla, J.J. 1979. Pollen morphology: the potential influence in higher order sytematics. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 66: 633–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Palmer, E.J., Steyermark, J. 1950. Notes on Geocarpon minimum Mackenzie. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 77: 268–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pax, F., Hoffmann, K. 1934. Caryophyllaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (Eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd edn. Leipzig: Engelmann 16c: 275–364.Google Scholar
  73. Pedersen, T.M. 1984. Caryophyllaceae. In: Flora Patagonica, Vol.4A. Buenos Aires: Edicion INTA.Google Scholar
  74. Philipp, M. 1974. Flower biology of Stellaria longipes. Bot. Tidsskr. 69: 239–244.Google Scholar
  75. Polunin, N. 1959. Circumpolar Flora. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  76. Prentice, H. C., Mastenbroek, O., Berendsen, W., Hogeweg, P. 1984. Geographic variation in the pollen of Silene latifolia (S. alba, S.pratensis): a quantitative morphological analysis of population data. Can. J. Bot. 62: 1259–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ratter, J. A. 1976. Cytogenetic studies in Spergularia: IX. Summary and conclusions. Notes R. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 34: 411–428.Google Scholar
  78. Richardson, M. 1978. Flavonols and C-glycosylflavonoids of the Caryophyllales. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 6: 283–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rocén, T. 1927. Zur Embryology der Centrospermen. Diss. Uppsala.Google Scholar
  80. Rohweder, O. 1965. Centrospermen-Studien 1. Der Blütenbau bei Uebelinia kiwuensis T.C.E. Fries (Caryophyllaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 83: 406–418.Google Scholar
  81. Rohweder, O. 1967. Centrospermen-Studien 3. Blütenentwicklung und Blütenbau bei Silenoideen (Caryophyllaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 86: 130–185.Google Scholar
  82. Rohweder, O. 1970. Centrospermen-Studien 4. Morphologie und Anatomie der Blüten, Früchte und Samen bei Alsinoideen und Paronychioideen s. lat. (Caryophyllaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 90: 201–271.Google Scholar
  83. Rohweder, O., Urmi, E. 1978. Centrospermen-Studien 10. Untersuchungen über den Bau der Blüten und Früchte von Cububalus baccifer L. und Drypis spinosa L. (Caryophyllaceae-Silenoideae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 100: 1–25.Google Scholar
  84. Roland, F. 1968. Ultrastructures des apertures. Pollen Spores 10: 479–519.Google Scholar
  85. Rutishauser, R. 1981a. Blattstellung und Sprossentwicklung bei Blütenpflanzen. Diss. Bot. Vol. 62. Vaduz: J. Cramer.Google Scholar
  86. Rutishauser, R. 1981b. Basale Blattauswüchse bei Centrospermen. In: VanCotthem, W. (Ed.) Morphologie, Anatomie und Systematik der Pflanzen, 5. Symposium Gent 1979. Ninove (Belgien): Waegeman, pp. 21–27.Google Scholar
  87. Schiman-Czeika, H. 1987. Notes on the capsule dehiscence in Acanthophyllum (Caryophyllaceae) and allied genera. Pl. Syst. Evol. 155: 67–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Scogin, R. 1988. Floral anthocyanidins of bird-visited flowers. Bot. Gaz. 149: 437–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Scopoli, I.A. 1771. Flora carniolica. Vol.1. Vindobona: J.P. Krauss.Google Scholar
  90. Sernander, R. 1906. Entwurf einer Monographie der europäischen Myrmekochoren. K. Svensk Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 41,7:1–410.Google Scholar
  91. Shykoff, J. A. 1988. Maintenance of gynodioecy in Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae): stage-specific fecundity and viability selection. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 844–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Skvarla, J.J., Nowicke, J.W. 1976. Ultrastructure of pollen exine in centrospermous families. Pl. Syst. Evol. 126: 55–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sourková, M. 1978. Caryophyllaceae subfam. Dianthoideae — Begrenzung, Charakteristik und Gliederung. Preslia 50: 139–152.Google Scholar
  94. Steinbrinck, C. 1891. Über die anatomisch-physikalische Ursache der hygroskopischen Bewegungen pflanzlicher Organe. Flora 74: 193–219.Google Scholar
  95. Sterk, A.A., Dijkhuizen, L. 1972. The relation between the genetic determination and the ecological significance of the seed wing in Spergularia media and S. marina. Acta Bot. Need. 21: 481–490.Google Scholar
  96. Straka, H., Friedrich, B. 1988. Farn.73: Caryophyllaceae. In: Palynologia Madagassica et Mascarenica. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 61: 29–33.Google Scholar
  97. Thomas, S.M., Murray, B.G. 1983. Chromosome studies in species and hybrids of Petrorhagia sect. Kohlrauschia (Caryophyllaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 141: 243–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Troll, W., Weberling, F. 1989. Infloreszenzuntersuchungen an monotelen Familien. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.Google Scholar
  99. Vishnu-Mittre, Gupta, H.P. 1964. Studies of Indian pollen grains. III. Caryophyllaceae. Pollen Spores 6: 99–111.Google Scholar
  100. Weberbauer, A. 1898. Beiträge zur Anatomie der Kapselfrüchte. Bot. Centralbl. 73: 54–59, 97-105, 135-142, 161-169, 193-202, 250-258, 296-302.Google Scholar
  101. Weller S.G., Sakai, A.K., Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. 1990. Evolution of dioecy in Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae: Alsinoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands: Biogeographical and ecological factors. Syst. Bot. 15: 266–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wofford, B.E. 1981. External seed morphology of Arenaria (Caryophyllaceae) of the Southeastern United States. Syst. Bot. 6: 126–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wyatt, R. 1983. Pollinator-plant interactions and the evolution of breeding systems. In: L.A. Real (Ed.) Pollination biology. New York: Academic Press, pp. 51–95.Google Scholar
  104. Zandonella, P. 1977. Apports de l’étude comparée des nectaires floraux a la conception phylogénétique de l’ordre des Centrospermales. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 90: 105–125.Google Scholar
  105. Zohary, M. 1937. Die verbreitungsökologischen Verhältnisse der Pflanzen Palästinas. I. Die antitelechorischen Erscheinungen. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 56 (Abt. A): 1–155.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Bittrich

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations