Gait Training

  • Susan S. Adler
  • Dominiek Beckers
  • Math Buck


Walking is a major goal for most patients. Effective walking requires the ability to change direction and to walk backward and sideways as well as forward. Being able to go up and down curbs, climb stairs and hills, and open and close doors increases the utility of the activity. To be totally functional the individual should be able to get down onto the ground and back up to standing again.


Anterior Superior Iliac Spine Heel Strike Weight Shift Gait Training Pelvic Motion 
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  1. Adler SS (1976) Influence of “Joint Approximation” on lower extremity extensor muscles: an EMG study. unpublished thesis presented at APTA annual conference, New OrleansGoogle Scholar
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Further Reading, Posture Control and Movement

  1. Finley FR, Cody KA (1969) Locomotive characteristics of urban pedestrians. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 51: 423–426Google Scholar
  2. Gahery Y, Massion J (1981) Co-ordination between posture and movement. Trends Neuro Sci 4: 199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Nashner LM (1980) Balance adjustments of humans perturbed while walking. J Neurophysiol 44: 650–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Nashner LM (1982) Adaptation of human movement to altered environments. Trends Neuro Sci 5: 358–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Nashner LM, Woollacott M (1979) The organization of rapid postural adjustments of standing humans: an experimental-conceptual model. In: Talbott RE, Humphrey DR (eds) Posture and movement. Raven, New York 1979Google Scholar
  6. Woollacott MH, Shumway-Cook A (1990) Changes in posture control across the life span–a systems approach. Phys Ther 70: 799–807PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. Inman VT, Ralston HJ, Todd F (1981) Human walking. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  2. Kettelkamp DB, Johnson RJ, Schmidt GL, et al. (1970) An electrogoniometric study of knee motion in normal gait. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 52: 775–790Google Scholar
  3. Mann RA, Hagy JL, White V, Liddell D (1979) The initiation of gait. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 61: 232–239Google Scholar
  4. McFadyen BJ, Winter DA (1988) An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent. J Biomechan 21: 733–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Murray MP, Kory RC, Sepic SB (1970) Walking patterns of normal women. Arch Phys Med Rehabi15 L: 637–650Google Scholar
  6. Murray MP, Drought AB, Kory RC (1964) Walking patterns of normal men. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 46: 335–360Google Scholar
  7. Nashner LM (1976) Adapting reflexes controlling the human posture. Exp Brain Res 26: 59–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Perry J (1992) Gait analysis, normal and pathological function. Slack, Thorofare NJGoogle Scholar
  9. Sutherland DH (1966) An electromyographic study of the plantar flexors of the ankle in normal walking on the level. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 48: 66–71Google Scholar
  10. Sutherland DH, Cooper L, Daniel D (1980) The role of the ankle plantar flexors in normal walking. J Bone Joint Surg [Al 62: 354–363Google Scholar
  11. Sutherland DH, Olshen R, Cooper L, Woo SLY (1980) The development of mature gait. J Bone Joint Surg 62: 336–353PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan S. Adler
    • 1
  • Dominiek Beckers
    • 2
  • Math Buck
    • 2
  1. 1.SuisunUSA
  2. 2.Samenwerkende Revalidatiecentra LimburgHoensbroekThe Netherlands

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