Cell Activation: Indo-1 Ratiometric Analysis of Intracellular Ionized Calcium

  • M. Kubbies
Part of the Springer Laboratory book series (SLM)


Intracellular ionized calcium (Ca2+) regulates various metabolic processes and is involved in signal transduction and cell activation. The intracellular concentration of Ca2+ in resting cells (100–200 nM) is far below the concentration of the extracellular environment. Most of the intracellular calcium, however, is bound in its nonionized form in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, cytosol, and cell memebrane. Influx of Ca2+ into cells occurs through the action of voltage gated channels after membrane depolarization or by the action of receptor-gated channels. The excess of Ca2+ is pumped out of the cells by the action of a membrane-bound Ca2+ ATPase (for review see [1, 2]).


Flow Cytometric Analysis Digital Ratio HeCd Laser Human PBLs Violet Fluorescence 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

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  • M. Kubbies

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