Structural Information from Atomic Beam Diffraction

  • K.-H. Rieder
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 27)

Abstract

Since about 1975, several novel surface spectroscopic methods based on the interaction of thermal energy neutral particles [4.1] even with very reactive solids have become possible due to the progress in combining high-resolution molecular beam production systems [4.2] with UHV techniques [4.3]. Because of their low kinetic energies (5–300 meV), beams of (nonreactive) atoms or molecules probe the topmost layer of the surface in an absolutely nondestructive manner. Using light species, especially helium, the scattering is predominantly elastic and, as the de Broglie wavelengths are of the order of several tenths of an Angstrom, diffraction effects dominate on well-ordered surfaces [4.4]. Measurements of the angular locations of the Bragg-diffraction beams allow determination of the size and orientation of the surface unit cells and analyses of diffraction intensities yield the surface corrugations, which very often provide direct pictures of the geometrical arrangement of the surface atoms [4.4]. In the diffraction regime, accurate determination of the particle—surface physisorption potential becomes possible via resonant scattering into bound state channels [4.4,5]. In this contribution a brief but self-contained survey is given of the experimental methods used to obtain atomic beam diffraction data and the theoretical procedures used to analyze them quantitatively to arrive at the pertinent corrugation functions. Selected examples of structural results serve to illustrate the potential and scope of atomic beam diffraction and allow discussion of its position relative to other surface structure methods like scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) [4.6] and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) [4.7].

Keywords

Attenuation Helium Hexagonal Soliton Hydride 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 4.1
    J.P. Toennies: Appl. Phys. 3, 91 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 4.2
    J.P. Toennies, K. Winkelmann: J. Chem. Phys. 66, 3965 (1977); G. Brusdeylins, H.D.Meyer, J.P. Toennies, K. Winkelmann: Prog. Astronautics Aeronautics 51, 1047 (1977)Google Scholar
  3. 4.3
    J.F. O’Hanlon: A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology, 2nd Ed. ( Wiley, New York 1989 )Google Scholar
  4. 4.4
    T. Engel, K.H. Rieder: In Structural Studies of Surfaces,Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, Vol 91 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982)Google Scholar
  5. 4.5
    a) H. Hoinkes: Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 933 (1980); (b) H. Wilsch, H. Hoinkes, this volume, Chap. 7.Google Scholar
  6. 4.6
    G. Binnig, H. Rohrer: IBM J. Res. Develop. 30, 355 (1986)Google Scholar
  7. 4.7
    M.A. Van Hove, W.H. Weinberg, C.-M. Chan: Low-Energy Electron Diffraction, Springer Ser. Surf. Sci. Vol. 6 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1986 ).Google Scholar
  8. 4.8
    Ch. Kittel: Introduction to Solid State Physics, 6th ed. (1987)Google Scholar
  9. 4.9
    N. Esbjerg, J. Norskov: Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 807 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 4.10
    J. Harris, A. Liebsch: J. Phys. C15, 2275 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 341 (1982)Google Scholar
  11. 4.11
    M. Manninen, J.K. Norskov, M.J. Puska, C. Umrigar: Phys. Rev. B 29, 2314 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 4.
    (a) J.P. Toennies: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A5, 440 (1987); (b) Physica Scripta T19 39 (1987)Google Scholar
  13. 4.13
    K. Kern, G. Comsa: In Molecule Surface Interactions, ed. by K. Lawley, Advances in Chemical Physics ( Wiley, New York 1989 )Google Scholar
  14. 4.14
    K.H. Rieder, W. Stocker: Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 352 (1984); K.H. Rieder, M. Baumberger, W. Stocker: ibid. 55, 390 (1985)Google Scholar
  15. 4.15
    E. Semerad: Surf. Sci. 211/212, 343 (1989); E. Semerad, E.M. Hörl: Surf. Sci. 115, 346 (1982)Google Scholar
  16. 4.16
    J.A. Barker, D.J. Auerbach: Surf. Sci. Rep. 4, 1 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 4.17
    E.K. Schweitzer, C.T. Rettner: Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 3085 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 4.18
    A. Moedl, T. Gritsch, F. Budde, T.J. Chuang, G. Ertl: Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 384 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 4.19
    M.P. D’Evelyn, R.J. Madix: Surf. Sci. Rep. 3, 314 (1983)Google Scholar
  20. 4.20
    G. Boato, P. Cantini, L. Mattera: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Part 2, p.553 (1974); J. Lapujoulade, J. Perreau: Phys. Scripta T4, 138 (1986); K.B. Whaley, C.F. Yu, C.S. Hogg, J.C. Light, S.J. Sibener: J. Chem. Phys. 83, 4235 (1985); R. Berndt, J.P. Toennies, Ch. Woell: J. Chem. Phys. 92, 1468 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 4.21
    S. Ianotta, G. Scoles, U. Valbusa: Surf. Sci. 161, 411 and 429 (1985)Google Scholar
  22. 4.22
    T.H. Ellis, G. Scoles, U. Valbusa, H. Jonsson, J.H. Weare: Surf. Sci. 155, 499 (1985); H. Jonsson, J.H. Weare, T.H. Ellis, G. Scoles: Surf. Sci. 180, 353 (1987).Google Scholar
  23. 4.23
    K.H. Rieder: In Structure and Dynamics of Surfaces I, ed. by W. Schommers, P. von Blanckenhagen: Topics Curr. Phys. 41 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1986 ) p. 17Google Scholar
  24. 4.24
    G. Ertl, J. Kueppers: Low Energy Electrons and Surface Chemistry ( Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1974 )Google Scholar
  25. 4.25
    U. Garibaldi, A.C. Levi, R. Spadacini, G.E. Tommei: Surf. Sci. 48, 649 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 4.26
    N. Garcia: J. Chem. Phys. 67, 897 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 4.27
    H. Chow, E.D. Thompson: Surf. Sci. 82, 1 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 4.28
    R.H. Swendsen, K.H. Rieder: Surf. Sci. 114, 405 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 4.29
    N. Garcia, N. Cabrera: Phys. Rev. B 18, 576 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 4.30
    A. Tsuchida: Surf. Sci. 14, 375 (1969); 46, 611 (1974); G. Wolken Jr.: J. Chem. Phys. 58, 3047 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 4.31
    R.J. Blake: Computer Phys. Commun. 33, 425 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 4.32
    E. Kirsten: Doctoral Thesis, Freie Universitaet Berlin (1991)Google Scholar
  33. 4.33
    E. Kirsten, G. Parschau, K.H. Rieder: Surf. Sci. Lett. 236, L365 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 4.34
    K.H. Rieder, W. Stocker: Surf. Sci. 164, 55 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 4.35
    K.H. Rieder, N. Garcia, V. Celli: Surf. Sci. 108, 169 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 4.36
    D.S. Kaufmann, L.R. Allen, E.H. Conrad, R.M. Aten, T. Engel: Surf. Sci. 173, 517 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 4.37
    G. Gross: Diploma Thesis, Freie Universitaet Berlin (1990)Google Scholar
  38. 4.38
    P. Cantini, R. Tatarek, G.P. Felcher: Phys. Rev. B 19, 1161 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 4.39
    L. Estermann, O. Stern: Z. Physik 61, 95 (1930); see also N.F. Ramsey. Molecular Beams ( Clarendon, Oxford 1985 )Google Scholar
  40. 4.
    Vacuum Science Workshop, Warwick Road South, Old Trafford, Manchester M16 OJT, data sheet on requestGoogle Scholar
  41. 4.41
    G. Parschau, E. Kirsten, A. Bischof, K.H. Rieder: Phys. Rev. B 40, 6012 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 4.42
    T. Engel, K.H. Rieder: Surf. Sci. 109, 140 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 4.43
    G. Parschau, E. Kirsten, K.H. Rieder: Surf. Sci. 225, 367 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 4.44
    J.F. Annett, R. Haydock: Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 838 (1984); Phys. Rev. B 34, 6860 (1986)Google Scholar
  45. J.F. Annett: Daresbury Laboratory Information Quarterly for Surface Sciences 14, 9 (1984)Google Scholar
  46. 4.46
    K.H. Rieder, M. Baumberger, W. Stocker: Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 390 (1985); K.H. Rieder: Phys. Rev. B 39, 10708 (1989)Google Scholar
  47. 4.47
    M. Prutton, J.A. Walker, M.R. Welton-Cook, R.C. Felton, J.A. Ramsey: Surf. Sci. 89, 95 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 4.48
    K.H. Rieder: Surf. Sci. 118, 57 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 4.49
    W. Puchta, W. Nichtl, W. Oed, N. Bickel, K. Heinz, K. Mueller: Phys. Rev. B 39, 1020 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 4.50
    G. Kleinle, V. Penka, R.J. Behm, G. Ertl, W. Moritz: Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 148 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 4.51
    B. Voigtlaender, S. Lehwald, H. Ibach: Surf. Sci. 208, 113 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 4.52
    W. Reimer, V. Penka, M. Skottke, R.J. Behm, G. Ertl, W. Moritz: Surf. Sci. 186, 45 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 4.53
    M. Michl, W. Nichtl-Pecher, W. Oed, H. Landskron, K. Heinz, K. Mueller: Surf. Sci. 220, 59 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 4.
    G. Parschau, E. Kirsten, K.H. Rieder: Phys. Rev. B, in pressGoogle Scholar
  55. 4.
    K. Heinz, K. Mueller: In Structural Studies of Surfaces,Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, Vol. 91 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982)Google Scholar
  56. 4.56
    M. Manninen, J.K. Norskov, C. Umrigar: Surf. Sci. 119, L393 (1982); D. Haneman, R. Haydock: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 330 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 4.57
    M. Skottke, R.J. Behm, G. Ertl, V. Penka, W. Moritz: J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6191 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 4.58
    I. Steensgaard, F. Jacobsen: Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 711 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 4.59
    K.H. Rieder, M. Baumberger, W. Stocker: Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1799 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 4.60
    K.H. Rieder, H. Wilsch: Surf. Sci. 131, 245 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 4.61
    K.H. Rieder: Phys. Rev. B 27 (RC), 6978 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 4.62
    T. Engel, K.H. Rieder, I.P. Batra: Surf. Sci. 148, 321 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 4.63
    G. Kleinle, J. Wintterlin, G. Ertl, R.J. Behm, F. Jona, W. Moritz: Surf. Sci. 225, 171 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 4.64
    P.J. Estrup: In Chemistry and Physics of Surfaces V, Springer Ser. Chem. Phys. Vol. 35 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1984 ) p. 205Google Scholar
  65. 4.65
    K.H. Rieder, T. Engel, R.H. Swendsen, M. Manninen: Surf. Sci. 127, 223 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 4.66
    J.F. Wendelken, D.M. Zehner: Surf. Sci. 71, 178 (1978); D. Wolf, H. Jagodzinski, W. Moritz: Surf. Sci. 77, 283 (1978)Google Scholar
  67. 4.67
    G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Stoll: Surf. Sci. 144, 321 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 4.68
    U. Harten, A.M. Lahee, J.P. Toennies, Ch. Wöll: Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2629 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 4.69
    G. Brusdeylins, R.B. Doak, J.P.Toennies: Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 437 (1981), Phys. Rev.B 27, 3662 (1983); J.P. Toennies: In Springer Ser. Chem. Phys., Vol. 21 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982 ) p. 208Google Scholar
  70. 4.70
    M. El-Batanouny, S. Burdick, K.M. Martini, P. Stancioff: Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2762 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 4.71
    Ch. Wöll, S. Chiang, R.J. Wilson, P.H. Lippel: Phys. Rev. B 39, 7988 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 4.72
    W. Moritz, D. Wolf: Surf. Sci. 163, L641 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 4.73
    K.M. Ho, K.P. Bohnen: Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1833 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 4.74
    K.H. Rieder, T. Engel, N. Garcia, in: Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Solid Surf., 3rd Europ. Conf. on Surf. Sci., Cannes(1980); Suppl. à la Revue “Le Vide, les Couches Minces”, Nr. 201, p. 861 (1980)Google Scholar
  75. 4.75
    E. Kirsten, K.H. Rieder: Surf. Sci. 222, L837 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 4.76
    E. Kirsten, G. Parschau, K.H. Rieder: Phys. Rev. B 41, 5392 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 4.77
    E. Kirsten, G. Parschau, W. Stocker, K.H. Rieder: Surf. Sci. Lett. 231, L183 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 4.78
    Hydrogen in Metals I and II,Ed. by G. Alefeld, J. Voelkl; Topics Appl. Phys. 28, 29 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982)Google Scholar
  79. 4.79
    M. Cardillo: In Chemistry and Physics of Surfaces IV, Springer Ser. Chem. Phys. Vol. 20 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982 ) p. 149Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.-H. Rieder

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations