Advertisement

Respiratory System

  • R. V. Krstić
Chapter

Abstract

The respiratory system comprises all organs involved in intake of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide. Fig. 1. The respiratory system may be divided into the following functional components:
  • Conducting portion, which functions to conduct, warm, moisten, and filter inspired air (nasal cavity, NC, with associated sinuses, Si; nasopharynx, Nph; larynx, La; trachea, Tr; bronchial tree, BT).

  • Respiratory zone, which is responsible for gas exchang (lung alveoli, LA).

  • Ventilating portion, which carries out the inspiratory and expiratory movements (thoracic cage, TC; intercostal muscles, IM; diaphragm, D).

Keywords

Lamina Propria Basal Lamina Olfactory Epithelium Bronchial Artery Alveolar Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Goshal NG, Khamas WAH (1984) Light microscopic study of blood vessels of the nasal cavity of the pig. Acta Anat 120: 202–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Grevers G, Heinzmann U, Grevers-Colorian J (1989) Morphological aspects of nasal blood vessels. In: Motta PM (Ed) Cell and Tissues: A Three-Dimensional Approach by Modern Techniques in Microscopy. Alan R Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Menco MB (1984) Ciliated and microvillous structures of rat olfactory and nasal respiratory epithelia. Cell Tissue Res 235: 225–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anholt RAH (1989) Molecular physiology of olfaction. Am J Physiol 257: C1043 - C1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Breer H, Boekhoff I (1992) Second messenger signalling in olfaction. Curr Op Neurobiol 2: 439–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Finger TE, Silver LW (Eds) (1987) Neurobiology of Taste and Smell. Wiley Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Firenstein S (1992) Electrical signals in olfactory transduction. Curr Op Neurobiol 2: 444–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mackay-Sim A, Kittel PW (1990) On the span of olfactory receptor neurons. Eur J Neurosci 3: 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Margolis FL, Getchell TV (Eds) (1988) Molecular Neurobiology of the Olfactory System. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Rowley IC, Moran DT, Jafek BW (1989) Peroxidase backfills suggest the mammalian olfactory epithelium contains a second morphologically distinct class of bipolar sensory neuron: The microvillar cell. Brain Res 502: 387–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Snyder SH, Sklar PB, Hwang PM, Pevsner J (1989) Molecular mechanisms of olfaction. Trends Neurosci 12: 35–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hinds JW, Hinds PL, McNelly NA (1984) An autoradiographic study of the mouse olfactory epithelium: Evidence for long-lived receptors. Anat Rec 210: 375–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ishimura K, Usa M, Fujita H, Kawata S, Okamoto M, Yamano T (1985) Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on non-ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium of normal, phenobarbitol-treated, and 3-methylcholantrene-treated mice. Cell Tissue Res 240: 501–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Laitinen A, Laitinen LA, Moss R, Widdicombe JG (1989) Organization and structure of the tracheal and bronchial blood vessels in the dog. J Anat 165: 133–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Plopper CG, St George JA, Nishio SJ, Etchison JR, Nettensheim P (1984) Carbohydrate cytochemistry of tracheobronchial airway epithelium of the rabbit. J Histochem Cytochem 32: 209–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Plopper CG, Heidsiek JG, Weir A, St George JA, Hyde DM (1989) Tracheobronchial epithelium in the adult rhesus monkey: A quantitative histochemical and ultrastructural study. Am J Anat 184: 31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schaufnagel DE (Ed) (1990) Electron Microscopy of the Lung. Lung Biology in Health and Disease, Vol 48. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Weibel ER (1985) Lung cell biology. In: Fishman AP, Fisher AB (Eds) Handbook of Physiology, Vol 1, The Respiratory System. American Physiological Society, Washington.Google Scholar
  19. Weibel ER, Taylor RC (Eds) (1981) Design of the mammalian respiratory system. Respir Physiol 44: 1–164.Google Scholar
  20. Coburn RF (Ed) (1989) Airway Smooth Muscle in Health and Disease. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Cutz E (1984) Neuro-endocrine (APUD-type) cells of the lung. In: Motta PM (Ed) Ultrastructure of Endocrine Cells and Tissues. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston.Google Scholar
  22. Scheuermann DW (1987) Morphology and cytochemistry of the endocrine epithelial system in the lung. Int Rev Cytol 106: 35–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tyler NK, Plopper CG (1985) Morphology of the distal conducting airways in Rhesus monkey lungs. Anat Rec 211: 295–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brody AR, Hook GER, Cameron GS, Jeffen AM, Butterick CJ, Nettesheim P (1987) The differentiation capacity of Clara cells isolated from the lungs of rabbits. Lab Invest 57: 219–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Manabe T, Ikeda H, Moriya T, Yamashita K (1987) Immunohistochemical localization of the secretory products of rat Clara cells. Anat Rec 217: 164–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Souma T (1987) The distribution and surface ultrastructure of airway epithelial cells in the rat lung: A scanning electron microscopic study. Arch Histol Jap 50: 419–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ten Have-Opbroek AAW (1986) The structural composition of the pulmonary acinus in the mouse. Anat Embryol 174: 49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davis LM, Lewandowski J, Dodson RF (1984) Morphology and ultrastructure of distal airway epithelium in the guinea pig. Anat Rec 209: 509–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Linhartova A, Caldwell W, Anderson AE (1986) A proposed alveolar model for adult human lungs: The regular dodecahedron. Anat Rec 214: 266–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bartels H (1986) Die Struktur der Zeltverbindungen in den Atemwegen und Lungenalveolen und ihre funktionelle Bedeutung. Anat Anz (Suppl) 160: 337–353.Google Scholar
  31. Gil J, Martinez-Hernandez A (1984) The connective tissue of rat lung: Electron immunohistochemical studies. J Histochem Cytochem 32: 230–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bourbon JR, Rienfort M (1987) Pulmonary surfactant. Biochemistry, physiology and pathology. News Physiol Sci 2: 129–132.Google Scholar
  33. Clemens JA, Goerke J, Wright JR, Beppu O (1984) lbrnover of lung surfactant. In: Von Wichert P (Ed) Current Concepts in Surfactant Research. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  34. Gehr P, Schürch S, Berthiaume Y, Im Hof V, Geiser M (1990) Particle retention in airways by surfactant. J Aerosol Med 3: 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hills BA (1988) The Biology of Surfactants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  36. Meban C (1987) Cytochemistry of the gas-exchange area in vertebrate lungs. Prog Histochem Cytochem 17: 1–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Penney DP (1988) The ultrastructure of epithelial cells of the distal lung. Int Rev Cytol 111: 231–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Robertson B, Van Golde CMG, Batenburg JJ (Eds) (1984) Pulmonary Surfactant. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  39. Adler KB, Davis GS, Woodworth CW, Brody AR (1979) The human pulmonary macrophage: Two distinct morphological populations. Scanning Electron Microscopy 1979/III: 921–928.Google Scholar
  40. Araki N, Ogawa K (1987) Regulation of intracellular lysosomal movements by the cytoskeletal system in rat alveolar macrophages. Acta Histochem Cytochem 20: 659–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fels AOS, Cohn ZA (1986) The alveolar macrophage. J Appl Physiol 60: 353–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gehr P, Schürch S, Geiser M, Im Hof V (1991) Retention and clearance mechanisms of inhaled particles. J Aerosol Sci 21 (Suppl 1): S491 - S496.Google Scholar
  43. Meban J (1986) Ultrastructural visualisation of carbohydrate groups in the surface coating of hamster alveolar macrophages and pneumonocytes. J Anat 146: 131–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schürch S, Gehr P, Im Hof V, Geiser M, Green F (1990) Surfactant displaces particles toward the epithelium in airways and alveoli. Resp Physiol 80: 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Caduff IN, Fischer LC, Burri PH (1986) Scanning electron microscope study of the developing microvasculature in the postnatal rat lung. Anat Rec 216: 154–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chinard PF, Defouw DO (1984) Microcirculation of the lungs. In: Mortillaro NA (Ed) Physiology and Pharmacology of the Microcirculation, Vol 2. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  47. Michailova K, Vidinov N, Wassilev W (1989) Scanning electron microscopy on pleura of laboratory animals. Anat Anz (Suppl) 164: 375–376.Google Scholar
  48. Schaufnagel ED (1987) Microvascular corrosion casting of the lung. A state-of-the-art review. Scannning Microscopy 1: 1733–1747.Google Scholar
  49. Schaufnagel DE (1989) Microvascular casting of the lung: Bronchial versus pulmonary artery filling. Scanning Microscopy 3: 575–578.Google Scholar
  50. Staub NC (1984) The importance of the lymphatic system in the lung. In: Courtice FC, Garlick DG, Perry MA (Eds) Progress in Microvascular Research, Vol 2. Committee in Postgraduate Medical Education, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. V. Krstić
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut d’Histologie et d’EmbryologieUniversités de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations