Pollinator Foraging and Flower Competiton in a Game Equilibrium Model

  • Reinhard Selten
  • Avi Shmida


Why do flowers produce nectar? A simple answer suggests itself. It is the purpose of nectar to attract pollinators. However, this is not a convincing explanation of the phenomenon. Pollinators are attracted to flowers which provide the right visual and olfactory stimuli. Once a pollinator visits a flower, pollination services are supplied whether nectar is found or not. The magnificent shapes and colors of flowers are advertising efforts, but it is not clear why the product should be delivered after payment has been obtained by successful advertising. In fact, many species of orchids heavily invest in advertising without offering any resource to pollinators.


Critical Level Optimal Policy Yield Level Stable Strategy Investment Level 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinhard Selten
  • Avi Shmida

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