• M.-C. Marti
Conference paper


Hemorrhoidal disease is the most frequently observed anal pathology; 50%-90% of all individuals complain of hemorrhoids at least once in their lives. Fifty percent of all patients attending a proctological clinic present more or less severe symptoms due to hemorrhoids. This disease has been recognized and treated since antiquity [34, 78, 82].


Anal Canal Anal Fissure Dentate Line Internal Sphincter Internal Hemorrhoid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abcarian H (1975) Lateral internal sphincterotomy. Surg Clin North Am 55: 143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acklany TH (1961) The treatment of prolapsed gangrenous hemorrhoids. Aust NZ J Surg 30: 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexander-Williams J, Crapp AR (1975) Conservative management of hemorrhoids. Clin Gastroenterol 4:595–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allgöwer N (1975) Conservative management of hemorrhoids, part III: partial internal sphincterotomy. Clin Gastroenterol 4: 608–618Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ambrose NS, Hares MM, Alexander-Williams J, Keighley MRB (1983) Prospective randomised comparison of photocoagulation and rubber band ligation in treatment of hemorrhoids. Br Med J [Clin Res] 1:1389–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anscombe AR, Hancock BD, Humphreys WV (1974) A clinical trial of the treatment of hemorrhoids by operation and the Lord procedure. Lancet ii: 250–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arabi Y, Alexander-Williams J, Keighley MRB (1977) Anal pressures in hemorrhoids and anal fissure. Am J Surg 134: 608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arabi Y, Marcuria T, Buchmann P, Alexander-Williams J, Keighley MRB (1987) Trial of high fiber diet or local treatment for patients with hemorrhoids. Gut 19: 1987Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arnous J, Parnaud E, Denis J (1971) Une hémor-roïdectomie de sécurité. Presse Med 79: 87–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barrios G, Khubuchandani M (1979) Urgent hemorrhoidectomy for hemorrhoidal thrombosis. Dis Colon Rectum 22: 159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barron J (1963) Office ligation of internal hemorrhoids. Am J Surg 105: 573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bartizal J, Slosberg PA (1977) An alternative to hemorrhoidectomy. Arch Surg 112: 534–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bensaude A (1967) Les hémorroïdes et affections courantes de la région anale. Maloine, ParisGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blanchard CE (1928) Textbook of ambulant proctology. Medical Success Press, Youngstown, OH, p 134Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blond K, Hoff H (1936) Das Hämorrhoidalleiden. Denticke, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brule J (1981) La cryothérapie des hémorroïdes. Rev Proctol 2:85–93Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Buchmann P, Mineruini S, Keighley MRB, Alexander-Williams J (1979) Individuell differenzierte Behandlung von Hämorrhoiden. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 68: 1600–1604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buchmann P, Hodel T (1980) Proctotherm, ein neues Prinzip der Hämorrhoidentherapie. Praxis 49: 1836–1838Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buchmann P (1988) Lehrbuch der Proktologie, 2nd edn. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buls JG, Goldberg SM (1978) Modern management of hemorrhoids. Surg Clin North Am 58: 469–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burkitt DP (1972) Varicose veins, DVT and hemorrhoids; epidemiology and suggested actiology. Br Med J 2: 556–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bennett RC, Friedman MHW, Goligher J-C (1963) Late results of hemorrhoidectomy by ligation and excision. Br Med J 2: 216–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chant ADB, May A, Wilken BJ (1972) Hemorrhoidectomy versus manual dilatation of the anus. Lancet ii: 398–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cheng FCY, Shum DWP, Ong GB (1981) The treatment of second degree hemorrhoids by injection, rubber band ligation, MDA and hemorrhoidectomy — a prospective clinical trial. Aust NZ J Surg 51: 458–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Creve U, Hubens A (1979) The effect of Lord’s procedure on anal pressure. Dis Colon Rectum 22: 483–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Detrano SJ (1973) Cryosurgical hemorrhoidectomy. Surgery 3: 118Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eisenhammer S (1974) Internal anal sphincterotomy plus free dilatation versus anal stretch procedure for hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum 17: 493–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fallet P, Marti M-C (1982) Complications urinaires et choix de l’anesthésie lors d’hémorroïdectomies. Rev Proct 2: 101–110Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ferguson JA, Heaton JR (1959) Closed haemorrhoid-ectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 2: 176–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gabriel WB (1939) Treatment of hemorrhoids. Br M J 2: 1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gass OC, Adams J (1950) Hemorrhoids. Etiology and pathology. Am J Surg 79: 40–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ganchrow MJ, Bowman HE, Clark JF (1971) Thrombosed hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum 14: 331–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goldberg SM, Gordon PH, Novatvongs S (1980) Essential of anorectal surgery. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goligher JC (1975) Surgery of the anus, rectum and colon, 3rd edn. Ballière Tuidall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goligher JC (1976) Cryosurgery for hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum 19: 213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Graham-Stewart CW (1962) Injection treatment of hemorrhoids. Br Med J 1: 213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Greca F, Hares MM, Nevah E, Williams JA, Keigh-ley MRB (1981) A randomised trial to compare rubber band ligation with phenol injection of hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 68: 250–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Groves AR, Evans JCW, Alexander-Williams J (1971) Management of internal hemorrhoids by rubber band ligation. Br J Surg 58: 923–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hancock BD, Smith K (1975) The internal sphincter and Lord’s procedure for hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 62: 833–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hancock BD (1977) Internal sphincter and the nature of hemorrhoids. Gut 18: 651–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hancock BD (1982) How do surgeons treat hemorrhoids? A study with special reference to Lord’s procedure. Ann R Coll Surg Eng 64: 397–400Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hansen JB, Jorgensen SJ (1975) Radical emergency operation for prolapsed and strangulated hemorrhoids. Acta Chir Scand 141: 810–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hansen HH (1977) Neue Aspekte zur Pathogenese und Therapie des Hämorrhoidalleidens. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 102: 1244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hochnli R, Allgöwer M (1968) Weitere Erfahrungen mit der Spaltung des Sphinkter internus nach Eisenhammer bei Analfissuren, Fisteln und Hämorrhoiden. Helv Chir Acta 35: 266–273Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Howard PM, Pingree JH (1968) Immediate radical surgery for hemorrhoidal disease with acute extensive thrombosis. Am J Surg 116: 777–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jacobs DM, Bubrick MP, Onstad GR, Hitchcock CR (1980) The relationship of hemorrhoids to portal hypertension. Dis Colon Rectum 23: 567–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jeffery PJ, Ritchie JL, Parks AG (1977) Treatment of hemorrhoids in patients with inflammation bowel disease. Lancet i: 1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jones CB, Schofield PF (1974) A comparative study of the methods of treatment for hemorrhoids. Proc R Soc Med 67: 51–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kaufman HD (1976) Outpatient treatment of hemorrhoids by cryotherapy. Br J Surg 63: 462–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keighley MRB, Alexander-Williams J, Buchmann P et al. (1979) Prospective trials of minor surgical procedures and high fiber diet for hemorrhoids. Br Med J 2: 967–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kilbourne J (1934) Internal haemorrhoids: comparative value of treatment by operative and by injection methods: a survey of 62910 cases. Ann Surg 99: 600–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kohlrausch O (1854) Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Beckenorgane. S Hirzel, Leipzig, pp 9–10Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lane RH, Casula G, Parks AG (1976) Anal pressure before and after hemorrhoidectomy. Br J Surg 63: 158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Leicester RJ, Nicholls RJ, Mann CV (1981) Infrared coagulations. A new treatment for hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum 24: 602–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Leicester RJ, Nicholls RJ, Mann CV (1983) Vergleichende Studie über Infrarot-Koagulation und konventionelle Methoden in der Hämorrhoiden-Therapie. Proktology 3: 313–315Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lewis MI (1972) Cryosurgical hemorrhoidectomy: a follow-up report. Dis Colon Rectum 15: 128–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lewis MI (1973) Cryohemorrhoidectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 15: 171Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lord PH (1968) A new regime for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Proc R Soc Med 61: 935–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lord PH (1969) A day-case procedure for the case of third-degree hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 56: 747–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lord PH (1972) A new approach to hemorrhoids. Prog Surg 10: 109–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lurz KH, Götner E (1978) Kombinierte Gummibandligatur und Kryochirurgie von Hämorrhoiden. Med Klin 73: 1392–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Macintyre IMC, Balfour TW (1972) Results of the Lord non-operative treatment for hemorrhoids. Lancet 1: 1094–1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mahlberg FA (1980) Hämorrhoidenentwicklung bei Piloten durch 6. Belastung. Phlebol Proktol 9: 36–40Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marti M-C (1976) Anesthésie locale en proctologic Nouv Presse Med 5: 2075Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Marti M-C (1982) La maladie hémorroïdaire et son traitement. Rev Med Suisse Romande 102: 359–368Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Marti M-C (1983) Quand faut-il opérer des hémor-roïdes. Med Hyg 41: 3010–3014Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Marti M-C, Rochat CH (1983) Faut-il opérer en urgence les prolapsus hémorroïdaires thrombosés. Med Hyg 41: 2280–2281Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Marti M-C, Rochat CH (1985) Affections proctolo-giques et grossesse. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 74: 615–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Martin CF (1904) The injection treatment of internal hemorrhoids. Am J Med 8: 365Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mazier WP (1973) Emergency hemorrhoidectomy. A worthwhile procedure. Dis Colon Rectum 16: 200–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Milligan ETC, Morgan CM, Jones LE, Officer R (1937) Surgical anatomy of the anal canal and the operative treatment of hemorrhoids. Lancet ii: 1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miles E (1919) Observations upon internal piles. Surg Gynecol Obstet 29: 497–506Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Muller CA (1980) Innere Hämorrhoidektomie mittels Gummibandligatur. Colo-Proctology 5: 317–319Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Murse JA, Sim AJW, Mackenzie I (1982) Rubber band ligation versus hemorrhoidectomy for prolapsing hemorrhoids. A long term prospective clinical trial. Br J Surg 69: 536–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Neiger A (1977) Experience acquise avec le strangler appareil à ligaturer. Ann Gastroentérol hépatol (Paris) 13: 997–998Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Neiger A, Moritz K, Kiefhaber P (1977) Hämorrhoiden-Verödungsbehandlung durch Infrarotkoagulation. (Fortschritte der gastroenterologischen Endoskopie, vol 6.) Witzstrock, Baden-Baden, pp 102–106Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Neiger A (1981) Treatment of bleeding hemorrhoids with infrared coagulation. Proktology 3: 310Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nesselrod JP (1964) Clinical proctology, 3rd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 76Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nicholls J, Glass R (1985) Coloproctology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    O’Callaghan JD, Matheson TS, Hall R (1982) In patient treatment of prolapsing piles. Cryosurgery versus Milligan Morgan hemorrhoidectomy. Br J Surg 69:157–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Oh C (1975) Role of cryosurgery in management of anorectal disease. Dis Colon Rectum 18: 289–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Parks AG (1956) The surgical treatment of hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 43: 337–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Parks AG (1965) Hemorrhoidectomy. Surg Clin North Am 45: 1305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Parnaud E, Guntz M, Bernard A, Chom J (1976) Anatomie normale macroscopique et microscopique du réseau vasculaire hémorroïdal. Arch Fr Mal Ap-par Dig 65: 501–514Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Parnaud E, Brulé J, Bidart JM (1980) Traitement ambulatoire des hémorroïdes par congélation contrôlée. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 4: 875–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Raynham WH (1970) Strangulated prolapsed hemorrhoids. S Afr J Surg (S Afr Tydskr Chir) 8: 29–34Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rosser C (1931) Chemical rectal stricture. JAMA 96: 1762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rudd WH (1977) Hemorrhoidectomy. How I do it: ligation with and without cryosurgery in 3000 cases. Dis Colon Rectum 20: 186–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ruiz-Moreno F (1977) Hemorrhoidectomy. How I do it: semiclosed technique. Dis Colon Rectum 20: 177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Saint-Pierre A, Palayodan A (1974) Anus et oestro-progestatifs de synthèse. Rapport de la 2ème réunion annuelle de la Société Nationale Française de Proctologic, ToulouseGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Saint-Pierre A (1980) Fünf Jahre Erfahrungen mit dem Zeroid-Stab. Proctology 2: 119–120Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schottler JL, Balcos EG, Goldberg SM (1973) Postpartum hemorrhoidectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 16: 395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sim AJW, Murie JA, Mackensie I (1981) Comparison of rubber band ligation and sclerosant injection for 1st and 2nd degree hemorrhoids. A prospective clinical trial. Acta Chir Scand 147: 717–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Soullard J, Contou JF (1979) La ligature élastique. Nouv Presse Med 8: 1681–1682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Smith LE, Goodyear JJ, Fouty WJ (1979) Operative hemorrhoidectomy versus cryo destruction. Dis Colon Rectum 22: 10–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stein E (1982) Praktische Erfahrungen mit der Sklerotherapie. Colo Proctology 3: 144–149Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stein E (1986) Proktologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Steinberg D, Liegois H, Alexander-Williams J (1975) Long term review of the results of rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 62: 144–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stelzner F, Staubesand J, Machleidt H (1962) Das Corpus cavernosum recti — die Grundlage der inneren Hämorrhoiden. Langenbecks Arch Klin Chir 299: 302–312Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stelzner F (1963) Die Hämorrhoiden und andere Krankheiten des Corpus cavernosum recti und des Analkanals. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 88: 689–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Taylor FW (1954) Portal hypertension and its dependence on external pressure. Ann Surg 140: 652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Taylor TV (1976) An instrumental method of performing Lord’s procedure for hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 63:460–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Templeton JL, Spence RAJ, Kennedy TL et al. (1983) Comparison of infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation for first and second degree hemorrhoids: a randomised prospective clinical trial. Br Med J 286: 1387–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tchirkow G, Haas PA, Fox TA (1982) Injection of a local anesthetic solution into hemorrhoidal bundels following rubber band ligation. Dis Colon Rectum 25:62–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Thomson WHF (1975) The nature of hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 62: 542–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Thomson WHF (1982) The real nature of “perianal haematoma”. Lancet ii: 467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Thulesins O, Gjöres JE (1973) Arteriovenous anastomoses in the anal region with reference to the pathogenesis and treatment of hemorrhoids. Acta Chir Scand 139: 476–478Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tinckler LF, Baratham G (1964) Immediate hemorrhoidectomy for prolapsed piles. Lancet ii: 1145–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Treitz F (1853) Über einen neuen Muskel am Duodenum des Menschen, über elastische Sehnen, und einige andere anatomische Verhältnisse. Viertel Jahrschrift Prag Heilkunde (Prager) I: 113–144Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Watts JM, Bennett RC, Duthie HL, Goligher JC (1964) Healing and pain after different forms of hemorrhoidectomy. Br J Surg 51: 88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Whitehead W (1887) Three hundred consecutive cases of hemorrhoids cured by excision. Br Med J 1: 449Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wilson MC, Schofield P (1976) Cryosurgical hemorrhoidectomy. Br J Surg 63: 497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wright AD (1950) Complications of rectal injections. Proc R Soc Med 43:263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Zollinger RM, Howe CT (1968) The small and large intestine. In: Davis L (ed) Christophers textbook of surgery, 9th edn, vol 2. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 731Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.-C. Marti

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations