Somaclonal Variation for Nematode Resistance

  • G. Fassuliotis
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 11)

Abstract

The development of disease-resistant cultivars through plant breeding depends on the extent of variability in a plant population with resistance-bearing traits that can be selected for transfer into new cultivars. Breeders have been relatively successful in transferring nematode resistance into some crop species. through selection of variants occurring in genotypes and through introgression. For some crop species. the gene base for nematode resistance is extremely wide, and resistance can be easily transferred when it is expressed by a single dominant gene; in others, the base is so narrow that nematode resistance is nonexistent (Fassuliotis 1987). To increase the natural variation in plant populations, mutation techniques have produced some lines with increased nematode resistance (Fassuliotis 1987). The use of wild species as parental sources for resistance has been extremely successful in some crops. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). to which root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) resistance was transferred by introgression of genes from the wild species Lycopersicon peruvianum. is an excellent example. F1 hybrids were brought to maturity through embryo culture (Smith 1944). Eggplant, Solanum melongena lacks resistance to root-knot nematodes, and attempts to cross it with the resistant wild species, S. sisymbriifolium. have been unsuccessful (Fassuliotis 1975). In potato breeding Solanum vernei has served as an important source of resistance against the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida.

Keywords

Migration Sucrose Agar Gall Mannitol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ammati M, Murashige T, Thomason IJ (1984) Retention of resistance to the root-knot nematode. Meloidogyne incognita. by Lycopersicon plants reproduced through tissue culture. Plant Sci Lett 35:247–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhatt DP. Fassuliotis G (1981) Plant regeneration from leaf mesophyll protoplasts of eggplant. Z Pflanzenphysiol 104:81–89Google Scholar
  3. Chavez R, Jackson MT, Schmiediche PE, Franco J (1988) The importance of wild potato species resistant to the potato cyst nematode. Globodera pallida. pathotypes P4A and PA. in potato breeding. I. Resistance studies. Euphytica 37:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dropkin VH, Helgeson JP, Upper CD (1969) The hypersensitivity reaction of tomato resistant to Meloidogyne incognita: Reversal by cytokinins. J Nematol 1:55–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Fassuliotis G (1975) Regeneration of whole plants from isolated stem parenchyma cells of Solanum sisymnbriifolium. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 100:636–638Google Scholar
  6. Fassuliotis G (1977) Tetraploid plants regenerated from callus of Solanum sisymbriifolium. In Vitro 13:146–147Google Scholar
  7. Fassuliotis G (1984) Reversal of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita of N C 95 tobacco plants regenerated from leaf discs. Proc 1st Int Cong Nematology. Abstr 78. Guelph. OntGoogle Scholar
  8. Fassuliotis G (1987) Genetic basis of plant resistance to nematodes. In: Veech JA. Dickson DW (eds) Vistas on nematology. Painter De Leon Springs. Fl. pp 364–370Google Scholar
  9. Fassuliotis G. Bhatt DP (1981) The effect of cloning on the resistance of Patriot tomato to Meloidogyne incognita race 1. Nematropica 10:66Google Scholar
  10. Fassuliotis G, Bhatt DP (1982) Potential of tissue culture for breeding root-knot nematode resistance into vegetables. J Nematol 14:10–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fassuliotis G. Dukes PD (1972) Disease resistance of Solanum melongena and S. sisymbriifolium to Meloidogyne incognita and Verticillium alboatrum. J Nematol 4:222Google Scholar
  12. Fassuliotis G, Nelson BV, Bhatt DP (1981) Organogenesis in tissue culture of Solanum melongena cv. Florida Market. Plant Sci Lett 22:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gleddie S, Fassuliotis G, Keller WA, Setterfield G (1985) Somatic hybridization as a potential method of transferring nematode and mite resistance into eggplant. Z Pflanzenzücht 94:348–351Google Scholar
  14. Gleddie S, Keller WA, Setterfield G (1986) Production and characterization of somatic hybrids between Solanum melongena L. and S. sisymbriifolium Lam. Theor Appl Genet 71:613–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huettel RN. Hammerschlag FA (1986) Influence of cytokinin on in vitro screening of peaches for resistance to nematodes. Plant Disease 70:1041–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jia J, Potrykus I (1981) Mesophyll protoplasts from Solanum melongena var. depressum Bailey regenerate to fertile plants. Plant Cell Rep 3:247–249Google Scholar
  17. Kochba J, Samish R M(1971) Effect of kinetin and 1-naphtylacetic acid on root-knot nematodes in resistant and susceptible peach rootstocks. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 96:458–461Google Scholar
  18. Kochba J. Samish R M(1972) Level of endogenous cytokinins and auxin in roots of nematode resistant and susceptible peach rootstocks. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 97:115–119Google Scholar
  19. Lauritis JA. Rebois RV. Graney LS (1982) Screening soybean for resistance to Heterodera glycines Ichinohe using monoxenic cultures. J Nematol 14:593–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Murashige T. Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Orion D. Pilowsky M (1984) Excised tomato root culture as a tool for testing root-knot nematode resistance. Phytoparasitica 12:71–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Saxena PK, Gill R, Rashid A, Maheshwari SC (1981) Plantlet formation from isolated protoplasts of Solanum melongena L. Protoplasma 106:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saxena PK, Gill R, Rashid A (1987) Optimal conditions for plant regeneration from mesophyll protoplasts of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Sci Hortic 31:185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith PG (1944) Embryo culture of a tomato species hybrid. Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci 44:413–416Google Scholar
  25. Uhrig H. Wenzel G (1981) Solanum gourlayi Hawkes as a source of resistance against the white potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida Stone. Z Pflanzenzücht 86:148–157Google Scholar
  26. Van Staden J, Dimalla GG (1977) A comparison of the endogenous cytokinins in the roots and xylem exudate of nematode-resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. J Exp Bot 28:1351–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wenzel G (1985) Strategies in unconventional breeding for disease resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 23:149–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wenzel G, Uhrig H(1981) Breeding for nematode and virus resistance in potato via anther culture. Theor Appl Genet 59:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wenzel G, Scheider O, Przewozny T, Sopory SK, Melchers G (1979) Comparison of single cell culture derived Solanum tuberosum L. plants and a model for their application in breeding programs. Theor Appl Genet 55:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Fassuliotis
    • 1
  1. 1.US Department of AgricultureAgriculture Research Service. US Vegetable LaboratoryCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations