• K. U. Kramer
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 1)


Small to medium-sized, often epiphytic plants with subterranean, dichotomously to laterally branched stems with endophytic mycorrhiza, without roots, and aerial, simple or dichotomously branched stems; stele protostelic, or solenostelic at the transition of subterranean and aerial stem. Aerial stems green, erect or pendulous, glabrous, slender, angular to sulcate or flattened, the basal part often with rudimentary leaves, the upper part leafy; leaves spirally arranged or distichous, flaccid or firm, narrow, simple or once forked, one-veined or veinless. Sporangia sessile on or above the base of forked sporophylls, thick-walled (eusporangiate), 2- or 3-celled and -lobed, each cell dehiscing longitudinally with a slit. Spores numerous, small, achlorophyllous, pale, bean-shaped, monolete. Gametophyte subterranean, heterotrophic.


Branch System Epiphytic Plant Aerial Branch Lycopodium Clavatum High Taxonomic Rank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bierhorst, D. W. 1954 a. The gametangia and embryo of Psilotum nudum. Amer. J. Bot. 41: 274–281.Google Scholar
  2. Bierhorst, D. W. 1954 b. The subterranean sporophytic axes of Psilotum nudum. Amer. J. Bot. 41: 732–739.Google Scholar
  3. Bierhorst, D. W. 1956. Observations on the axial appendages in the Psilotaceae. Phytomorphology 6: 176–184.Google Scholar
  4. Bierhorst, D. W. 1968. On the Stromatopteridaceae (fam. nov.) and on the Psilotaceae. Phytomorphology 18: 232–268.Google Scholar
  5. Bierhorst, D. W. 1969. On Stromatopteris and its ill-defined organs. Amer. J. Bot. 56: 160–174.Google Scholar
  6. Bierhorst, D. W. 1973. Non-appendicular fronds in the Filicales. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 67 Suppl. 1: 45–57.Google Scholar
  7. Braithwaite, A. F. 1986. Tmesipteris in Vanuatu (New Hebrides). Fern Gaz. 13: 87–96.Google Scholar
  8. Chinnock, R. J. 1975. The New Zealand species of Tmesipteris (Psilotaceae). New Zeal. J. Bot. 13: 743–768.Google Scholar
  9. Chinnock, R. J. 1976. The identification, typification and origin of Tmesipteris tannensis ( Psilotaceae ). Taxon 25: 115–121.Google Scholar
  10. Cooper-Driver, G. 1977. Chemical evidence for separating the Psilotaceae from the Filicales. Science 198: 1260–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. David, A. 1965. Contribution à l’étude des Psilotales. Lyon.Google Scholar
  12. Eames, A. J. 1936. Morphology of vascular plants. Lower groups. New York, London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  13. Jonker, F. P. 1973. The taxonomic position of the Psilotales in the light of our knowledge of Devonian plant life. Palaeobotanist 20: 33–38.Google Scholar
  14. Lam, H. J. 1948. Classification and the new morphology. Acta Biotheor. 8: 107–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lugardon, B. 1973. Sur les parois sporales de Psilotum triquetrum Sw. et leur structure fine. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. D 276: 1277–1280.Google Scholar
  16. Lugardon, B. 1979. Sur la formation du sporoderme chezGoogle Scholar
  17. Psilotum triquetrum Sw. (Psilotaceae). Grana 8: 145–165.Google Scholar
  18. Reed, C. F. 1966. Index Psilotales. Bol. Soc. Brot. II. 40: 71–96.Google Scholar
  19. Wallace, J. W., Pozner, R. S., Gomez, L. D. 1983. A phytochemical approach to the Gleicheniaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 70: 207–211.Google Scholar
  20. White, R. A. (Ed.). 1977. Taxonomic and morphological relationships of the Psilotaceae: introduction to the symposium. Brittonia 29: 1–68.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. U. Kramer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations