General References for Gymnosperms

  • Karl Ulrich Kramer
  • P. S. Green
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 1)


General Reference Chromosome Number Vascular Plant Fossil Plant Living Conifer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



  1. Bentham, G., Hooker, J. D. 1880. Genera Plantarum 3, 1. Gymnospermae. London: L. Reeve, pp. 417–447.Google Scholar
  2. Engler, A., Prantl, K. (Eds) 1887, 1926. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2, 1, pp. 6–127 (1887); 2nd edn., Vol.13. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. 447 pp. (1926).Google Scholar
  3. Fitzpatrick, H. M. 1929. Coniferae: keys to the genera and species, with economic notes. Sci. Proc. R. Dublin Soc. II, 19: 189–260.Google Scholar
  4. Janchen, E. 1949. Das System der Koniferen. Österr. Akad. Wiss. Math. Nat. KI. Sitzungsber. 158: 155–162.Google Scholar
  5. Keng, H. 1975. A new scheme of classification of the conifers. Taxon 24: 259–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Miguel, F. A. W. 1861. Prodromus Systematis Cycadearum. Utrecht: Post.Google Scholar
  7. Read, R. W., Solt, M. L. 1986. Bibliography of the living cycads. Lyonia 4: 33–199.Google Scholar
  8. Regel, E. 1876. Cycadearum generum specierumque revisio. Acta Horti Petrop. 4 (4): 273–320.Google Scholar
  9. Silba, J. 1984. An international census of the Coniferae, I. Phytol. Mem. 7: 1–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Silba, J. 1986. Encyclopedia Coniferae. Phytol. Mem. 8: 1–217.Google Scholar

Morphology, Anatomy and Phylogeny

  1. Beck, C. B. (Ed.) 1988. Origin and evolution of gymnosperms. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Behnke, H. D. 1974. Sieve-element plastids of Gymnospermae: their ultrastructure in relation to systematics. Plant Syst. Evol. 123: 1–12.Google Scholar
  3. Bierhorst, D. W. 1971. Morphology of vascular plants. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  4. Chamberlain, C.J. 1919. The living cycads. Chicago: Univ. Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chamberlain, J. C. 1935. Gymnosperms, structure and evolution. Chicago: Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  6. Coulter, J. M., Chamberlain, C. J. 1910. Morphology of gymnosperms. Chicago: Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  7. Crane, P. 1985. Phylogenetic analysis of seed plants and the origin of angiosperms. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 72: 716–793.Google Scholar
  8. Eames, A. J. 1936. Morphology of vascular plants. Lower groups. New York: MacGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  9. Erdtman, G. 1957–1965. Pollen and spore morphology/plant taxonomy. (An introduction to palynology, Vols. 2–3); vol. 2: Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta and Bryophyta (Illustrations); vol.3 (1965): Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, (Text). Stockholm: Ahnqvist Wiksell.Google Scholar
  10. Esau, K. 1969. The phloem. Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie Bd. 5, T. 2. Berlin: Bornträger.Google Scholar
  11. Greguss, P. 1963. Xylotomische Bestimmung der heute lebenden Gymnospermen. Budapest: Akad. KiadbGoogle Scholar
  12. Greguss, P. 1968. Xylotomy of the living cycads. Budapest:Google Scholar
  13. Akad. Kiadb. Greguss, P. 1972. Xylotomy of the living conifers. Budapest: Akad. Kiadb.Google Scholar
  14. Martens, P. 1971. Les gnétophytes. Handbuch der Pflanzen- anatomie, 2nd edn., Spec. pt. 12, 2. Berlin: Bornträger.Google Scholar
  15. Napp-Zinn, K. 1966. Anatomie des Blattes. I. Blattanatomie der Gymnospermen. Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie, 2nd edn., Spec. pt. 8, 2. Berlin: Bornträger.Google Scholar
  16. Singh, H. 1978. Embryology of gymnosperms. Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie, 2nd edn., Spec. pt. 10, 2. Berlin: Bornträger.Google Scholar
  17. Sporne, K. R. 1974. The morphology of gymnosperms, 2nd edn. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar


  1. Arnold, C. A. 1948. Classification of gymnosperms from the viewpoint of paleobotany. Bot. Gaz. 110: 5–12.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, C. B. 1976. Current status of the Progymnospermopsida. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 21: 5–23.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, C. B. 1987. Gymnosperm phylogeny - a commentary on the views of S. V. Meyen. Bot. Rev. 51: 273–294.Google Scholar
  4. Florin, R. 1931. Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der Coniferales and Cordaitales. Kongl. Svensk. Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 3, 10, 588 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Florin, R. 1951. Evolution in cordaites and conifers. Acta Horti Berg. 15: 285–388.Google Scholar
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    Florin, R. 1963. The distribution of conifer and taxad genera in time and space. Acta Horti Berg. 20: 121–312.Google Scholar
  7. Meyen, S. V. 1984. Basic features of gymnosperm systematics and phylogeny as evidenced by the fossil record. Bot. Rev. 50: 1–111.Google Scholar
  8. Meyen, S. V. 1987. Fundamentals of palaeobotany. London, New York: Chapman Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Niklas, K.J. (Ed.) 1981. Paleobotany, paleoecology and evolution, 2 vols. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  10. Seward, A. C. 1919. Fossil plants. Cambridge Univ. Press. Stein, W. E., Wight, D. C., Beck, C. E. 1984. Possible alterna-tives for the origin of Sphenopsida. Syst. Bot. 9: 102–118.Google Scholar
  11. Stewart, W. N. 1983. Palaeobotany and the evolution of plants. Cambridge: Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  12. Thomas, B. A., Spicer, R. A. 1986. The evolution and palaeobiology of land plants. London: Croom Helm; Portland, OR: Sydney/Dioscorides Press.Google Scholar
  13. Zimmermann, W. 1959. Die Phylogenie der Pflanzen, 2nd edn. Jena: Gustav Fischer.Google Scholar


  1. Flory, W. S. 1936. Chromosome numbers and phylogeny in the gymnosperms. J. Arnold Arb. 17: 83–89.Google Scholar
  2. Khoshoo, T. N. 1961. Chromosome numbers in gymnosperms. Silv. Genet. 10: 1–9.Google Scholar
  3. Koshoo, T. N. 1962. Cytogenetical evolution in the gymnosperms–karyotype. Summer School Bot. Darjeeling, pp. 119–135.Google Scholar
  4. Mehra, P. N., Khoshoo, T. N. 1956. Cytology of conifers. J. Genet. 54: 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Sax, K., Sax, H.J. 1933. Chromosome number and morphology in the conifers. J. Arnold Arb. 14: 356–375.Google Scholar

Chemistry and Chemosystematics

  1. Hegnauer, R. 1962. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen, vol. 1. Basel: Birkhäuser, pp. 293–471.Google Scholar
  2. Hegnauer, R. 1985. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen, vol. 7. Basel: Birkhäuser, pp. 462–554.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl Ulrich Kramer
    • 1
  • P. S. Green
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Systematische BotanikUniversität ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Royal Botanic Gardens KewRichmond, SurreyUK

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