From human pancreas. The amount of human insulin that can be prepared from cadaveric pancreas glands is totally inadequate for therapy.
From amino acids by peptide synthesis (Sieber et al. 1974,1977). The 200 reaction steps of a total synthesis make the product extremely costly.
From porcine insulin by a semisynthetic conversion into human insulin. Porcine insulin can be made in sufficient quantities to meet the demands for the next decades and a quantitative conversion process for large-scale production has been developed (cf. D.I.2).
From fermentation of E. coli bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, suitably encoded by DNA recombinant methods. This source is, in theory, unlimited (cf. D.I.3).
KeywordsHuman Insulin Cyanogen Bromide Porcine Insulin Insulin Chain Transpeptidation Reaction
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