Puzzles in the Study of Daily Hassles

  • R. S. Lazarus

Abstract

Theory and research in psychological stress has shifted from an earlier perspective of environmental inputs or outputs to a relational one. Stress is now treated as harms, threats and challenges, the quality and intensity of which depend on personal agendas, resources and vulnerabilities of the person, as well as on environmental conditions. This implies a knowing person who construes or appraises the significance of what is happening for his or her well-being. Such a “paradigm shift” requires a different approach to stress measurement, one that takes into account the cognitive activity evaluating the personal significance of transactions, and examines the multiple specific variables of person and environment that influence the appraisal process. The need for a different approach to stress measurement has generated research by the Berkeley Stress and Coping Project on what we have called daily hassles and uplifts.

Keywords

Arthritis Income Straw Arena Defend 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ader R. (1981) Psychoneuroimmunology. New York: AcademicGoogle Scholar
  2. Benner, P. (1984). Stress and satisfaction on the job: Work meanings and coping in midcareer men. New York: PraegerGoogle Scholar
  3. Brim, O. G., Jr., & Ryff, C. D. (1980) On the properties of life events. In P. B. Baltes & O.G. Brim (eds.), Life-span development and behavior: Vol. 3 (pp. 367–388). New York: AcademicGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen, F. & Lazarus, R. S. (1983) Coping and adaptation in health and illness. In D. Mechanic (Ed.), Handbook of health and health services (pp. 608–635). New York: Free PressGoogle Scholar
  5. Coyne, J. C. & Lazarus, R. S. (1980) Cognitive style, stress perception, and coping. In I. L. Kutash & L. B. Schlesinger (Eds.), Handbook on stress and anxiety: Contemporary knowledge, theory, and treatment (pp. 144–158). San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  6. DeLongis, A., Coyne, J. C., Dakof, G., Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1982) Relationship of daily hassles, uplifts, and major life events to health status. Health Psychology, 1, 119–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DeLongis, A. & Lazarus, R. S. (1982 August) Hassles, uplifts and health in aging adults: A paradox examined. Paper presented at meetings of American Psychological Association, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  8. Epstein, S. (1983) Aggregation and beyond: Some basic issues on the prediction of behavior. Journal of Personality, 51, 360–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Folkman, S. & Lazarus, R. S. (1980) An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 219–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Folkman, S. & Lazarus, R. S. (1985) If it changes it must be a process: A study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 150–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holroyd, K. A. & Lazarus, R. S. (1982) Stess, coping, and somatic adaptation. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects. (pp. 21–35). New York: Free PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Horowitz, M. (1976) Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason AronsonGoogle Scholar
  13. Horowitz, M. (1982) Psychological processes induced by illness, injury, and loss. In T. Millon, C. Green, & R. Meagher (Eds.), Handbook of clinical health psychology (pp. 53–67). New York: PlenumCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hultsch, D. F. & Plemons, J. K. (1979) Life events and life-span development. In P. Baltes & O. G. Brim (eds.), Life-span development and behavior: Vol. 2 (pp.1 – 36). New York: AcademicGoogle Scholar
  15. Jessor, R. (1981) The perceived environment in psychological theory and research. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), Toward a psychology of situations: An interactional perspective (pp. 297–317). Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  16. Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981) Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 1–39 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaplan, N. M. (1979) The Goldblatt memorial lecture Part II: The role of the kidney in hypertension. Hypertension, 1, 456–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lazarus, R. S. (1978) A strategy for research on psychological and social factors in hypertension. Journal of Human Stress, 4, 35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lazarus, R. S., Coyne, J. C., & Folkman, S. (1982) Cognition, emotion, and motivation: The doctoring of Humpty-Dumpty. In R. W. J. Neufeld (Ed.), Psychological stress and psychopathology (pp. 218–239). New York: McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  20. Lazarus, R. S. & DeLongis, A. (1983). Psychological stress and coping in aging. American Psychologist, 38, 245–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lazarus, R. S. & Folkman, S. (1984) Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: SpringerGoogle Scholar
  22. Lazarus, R. S. & Launier, R. (1978) Stress-related transactions between person and environment. In L. A. Pervin & M. Lewis (Eds.), Perspectives in interactional psychology (pp. 287–327). New York: PlenumCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewin, K. A. (1936) Principles of topological psychology. New York: McGraw-HillCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewin, K. A. (1951) Field theory and learning. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers by Kurt Lewin. New York: HarperGoogle Scholar
  25. Luborsky, L., Docherty, J. P., & Penick, S. (1973) Onset conditions for psychosomatic symptoms: A comparative review of immediate observation with retrospective research. Psychosomatic Medicine, 35, 187–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Meichenbaum D. & Gilmore J. B. (1980) Resistance: From a cognitive-behavioral perspective. In P. Wachtel (Ed.), Resistance in psychodynamic and behavioral therapy. New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  27. Meyer, R. J. & Haggerty, R. J. (1962) Streptococcal infections in families. Pediatrics, April, 539–549Google Scholar
  28. Monroe, S. M. (1983) Major and minor life events as predictors of psychological distress: Further issues and findings. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6, 189–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Lazarus
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations