Equilibrium Thermodynamics

  • Morton H. Friedman


It is appropriate to begin this text with an examination of the equilibrium state, since departures from this state drive the transport processes that we will discuss in the chapters to follow. The equilibrium state is defined in the first section of this chapter, using the laws of thermodynamics to develop expressions for the activities and chemical potentials of species in the biological environment. Because of the particular importance of the chemical potential (and the related electrochemical potential) to descriptions of transport, special emphasis is placed on its relation to solute activities and concentrations, and to the other measurable properties of biological solutions.


Sugar Entropy Dioxide Europe Sodium Chloride 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morton H. Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Physics Laboratory and School of MedicineThe Johns Hopkins UniversityLaurelUSA

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