Reboilers

  • P. B. Whalley
  • G. F. Hewitt

Abstract

Reboilers are used widely in the process industry to generate a flux of vapor to feed to a distillation tower (or distillation column). The vapor rises up the tower contacting a downward flowing liquid stream, as shown in Fig. 1. The vapor is generated in the reboiler from the liquid stream leaving the lowest tray; the liquid is only partly evaporated, the remainder being partly recirculated through the reboiler and partly passed out of the system as the “bottom product” of the distillation tower. The mean residence time of the liquid in the bottom of the distillation tower (the “hold-up” time) is commonly 5–10 min.

Keywords

Permeability Nickel Convection Enthalpy Foam 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahmad, S. Y. 1973, Fluid-to-fluid Modelling of Critical Heat Flux: A Compensated Distortion Model. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 16, pp. 641–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akinjiola, P. 0. 1979, Flow Instability Threshold in Once-Through Heat Exchanger Systems. UKAEA Report AERE-R 9142.Google Scholar
  3. Armand, A. A. 1946, The Resistance during the Movement of a Two-Phase System in Horizontal Pipes. Isv. Vses. Tepl. Inst. vol. 1, pp. 16–23.Google Scholar
  4. Baroczy, C. J. 1965, A Systematic Correlation for Two-Phase Pressure Drop. Chem. Eng. Prop. Symp. Ser. vol. 62, no. 64, pp. 232–249.Google Scholar
  5. Bergles, A. E. 1976, Review of Instabilities in Two-Phase Systems. Proc. of NATO Advanced Study Institute vol. 1, pp. 383–422.Google Scholar
  6. Bergles, A. E. 1981, Instabilities in Two-Phase Systems. In: Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Power and Process Industries, A. E. Bergles, J. G. Collier, J. M. Delhaye, G. F. Hewitt and F. Mayinger, Eds. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  7. Blumenkrantz, A., and J. Taborek 1972, Application of Stability Analysis for Design of a Natural Circulation Boiling System and Comparison with Experimental Data. AIChE Symp. Ser. vol. 68, no. 118, pp. 136–146.Google Scholar
  8. Bouré, J., and A. Mihaila 1967, The Oscillatory Behaviour of Heated Channels. Symposium on Two-Phase Flow Dynamics, Eindhoven, September 1967, Paper no. 6. 1.Google Scholar
  9. Bowring, R. W. 1972, A Simple but Accurate Round-Tube, Uniform Heat Flux, Dryout Correlation over the Pressure Range 0.7–17 MN/m2 (100–2500 psia), UKAEA Report AEEW-R 789.Google Scholar
  10. Brisbane, T. W. C., I. D. R. Grant and P. B. Whalley 1980, A Prediction Method for Kettle Reboiler Performance. ASME paper 80-HT-42 (ASME/AIChE Heat Transfer Conf., Orlando, Florida).Google Scholar
  11. Butterworth, D. 1979, The Correlation of Cross-Flow Pressure Drop Data by Means of the Permeability Concept. UKAEA Report AERE-R 9435.Google Scholar
  12. Cavaseno, V. 1979, Ed. Process Heat Exchange. New York: Chemical Engineering and McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  13. Chen, J. C. 1966, Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Fluids in Convective Flow. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design and Development vol. 5, pp. 322–329.Google Scholar
  14. Chisholm, D. 1973, Pressure Gradients due to Friction during the Flow of Evaporating Two-Phase Mixtures in Smooth Tubes and Channels. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer vol. 16, pp. 347–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins, G. K. 1976, Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler Design. Chemical Engineering, July 19th. Reprinted in Cavaseno 1979, pp. 68–71.Google Scholar
  16. Cornwell, K., N. W. Duffin and R. B. Schüller 1980, An Experimental Study of the Effects of Fluid Flow on Boiling within a Kettle Reboiler. ASME paper 80-HT-45 (ASME/AIChE Heat Transfer Conference, Orlando, Florida).Google Scholar
  17. Davies, A. L., and R. Potter 1966, Hydraulic Stability and Analysis of Causes of Unstable Flow in Parallel Channels. UKAEA Report AEEW-R 446.Google Scholar
  18. Duff in, N. W., and K. Cornwell 1979, On the Local Flow Pattern and Boiling Process between the Upper Tubes of a Reboiler Tube Bundle. Unclassified paper presented at the HTFS Research Symposium, Oxford.Google Scholar
  19. Fair, J. R. 1960, What You Need to Design Thermosyphon Reboilers. Pet. Refiner vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 105–123.Google Scholar
  20. Fair, J. R., and A. Klip 1983, Thermal Design of Horizontal Reboilers. Chem. Eng. Prog. vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 86–96.Google Scholar
  21. Forster, H. K., and N. Zuber 1955, Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles and Boiling Heat Transfer. AIChE J. vol. 1, pp. 531–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frank, O., and R. D. Prickett 1973, Designing Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers. Chemical Engineering, September 3rd. Reprinted in Cavaseno 1979, pp. 52–55.Google Scholar
  23. Friedel, L. 1979, New Friction Pressure Drop Correlations for Upward, Horizontal, and Downward Two-Phase Pipe Flow. Presented at the HTFS Symposium, Oxford, September 1979 (Hoechst AG Reference No. 372217 /24 698 ).Google Scholar
  24. Garner, F. H., S. R. M. Ellis, and J. A. Lacey 1954, The Size Distribution and Entrainment of Droplets. Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. vol. 32, pp. 222–235.Google Scholar
  25. Grant, I. D. R. 1975, Flow and Pressure Drop Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flow on the Shell Side of Segmentally Baffled Shell-and-Tube Exchangers, in: Advances in Thermal and Mechanical Design of Shelland-Tube Heat Exchangers: Report of a Meeting at NEL 28th November, 1973. NEL Report No. 590, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  26. Hewitt, G. F. 1982a, Applications of Two-Phase Flow. Chem. Eng. Prog. vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 38–46.Google Scholar
  27. Hewitt, G. F. 1982b, Burnout. Chapter 6.4 of Handbook of Multiphase Systems, (G. Hetsroni, Ed) Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  28. Hsu, Y. Y., and R. W. Graham 1976, Transport Processes in Boiling Two-Phase Systems, New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  29. Hughmark, G. A. 1961, Designing Thermosyphon Reboilers. Chem. Eng. Prop. vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 43–47.Google Scholar
  30. Hughmark, G. A. 1964, Designing Thermosyphon Reboilers. Chem. Eng. Prog. vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 59–61.Google Scholar
  31. Hughmark, G. A. 1969, Designing Thermosyphon Reboilers. Chem. Eng. Frog. vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 67–70.Google Scholar
  32. Hunt, C. d’A., D. N. Hanson, and C. R. Wilke 1955, Capacity factors in the Performance of Perforated-Plate Columns. AIChE J. vol. 1, pp. 441–451.Google Scholar
  33. Jacobs, J. K. 1961, Reboiler Selection Simplified. Hydrocarbon Process. Pet. Refiner vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 189–196.Google Scholar
  34. Johnson, A. I. 1956, Circulation Rates and Overall Temperature Driving Forces in a Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler. Chem. Eng. Frog. Symp. Ser. vol. 52, no. 18, pp. 37–46.Google Scholar
  35. Johnson, D. L. 1979, Guidelines Given for Designing Vacuum Reboilers. Oil Gas J. vol. 77, no. 49, pp. 63–65.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, D. L., and Y. Yukawa 1979, Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers in Vacuum Service. Chem, Eng. Frog. vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 47–52.Google Scholar
  37. Katto, Y. 1980, General Features of CHF of Forced Convection Boiling in Uniformly Heated Vertical Tubes with Zero Inlet Subcooling. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer vol. 23, pp. 493–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Katto, Y. and H. Ohno 1984, An Improved Version of the Correlation of Critical Heat Flux for Forced Convective Boiling in Uniformly Heated Vertical Tubes. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer vol. 27, pp. 1641–1648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kern, D. Q. 1950, Process Heat Transfer, New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  40. Lee, D. C., D. W. Dorsey, G. Z. Moore, and F. D. Mayfield 1956, Design Data for Thermosyphon Reboilers. Chem. Eng. Frog. vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 160–164.Google Scholar
  41. Leong, L. S., and K. Cornwell 1979, Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Reboiler Tube-Bundle. The Chemical Engineer no. 343, pp. 219–221.Google Scholar
  42. Lockhart, R. W., and R. C. Martinelli 1949, Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase Two-Component Flow in a Pipe. Chem. Eng. Prog. vol. 45, pp. 39–48.Google Scholar
  43. Martinelli, R. C., and D. B. Nelson 1948, Prediction of Pressure Drop during Forced Circulation Boiling of Water. Trans. ASME vol. 70, pp. 695–702.Google Scholar
  44. McKee H. R. P970, Thermosyphon Reboilers - A Review. Ind. Eng. Chem. vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 76–81.Google Scholar
  45. Montgomery, R. T. 1969, A Study of the Effect of Tube Bundle Geometry on the Nucleate Boiling Region of a Series of Hydrocarbon Liquids. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Missouri at Rolla.Google Scholar
  46. Mostinski, I. L. 1963, Calculation of Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Fluxes in Boiling Liquids Based on the Law of Corresponding States. Teploenergetika vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 66–71.Google Scholar
  47. Nakajima, K. 1978, Boiling Heat Transfer Outside Horizontal Multitube Bundles. Heat Transfer Jap. Res. vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–24.Google Scholar
  48. Nakajima, K., and K. Morimoto 1969, Boiling Heat Transfer on Outside Walls of Refrigerant-Filled Horizontal-Tube Bundles. Refrigeration (in Japanese), vol. 44, no. 495, pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  49. Newitt, D. M., N. Drombrowski, and F. H. Knelman 1954, Liquid Entrainment: 1. The Mechanism of Drop Formation from Gas or Vapour Bubbles. Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. vol. 32, pp. 244–261.Google Scholar
  50. Owen, R. G., and W. C. Lee 1983, Some Recent Developments in Condensation Theory. Chem. Eng. Res. Dev. vol. 61, pp. 335–361.Google Scholar
  51. Palen, J. W., and J. Taborek 1962, Refinery Kettle Reboilers–Proposed Method for Design and Optimization. Chem. Eng. Prog. vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 37–46.Google Scholar
  52. Palen, J. W., and W. M. Small 1964, A New Way to Design Kettle and Internal Reboilers. Hydrocarbon Process, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 199–208.Google Scholar
  53. Palen, J. W., A. Yarden, and J. Taborek 1972, Characteristics of Boiling Outside Large-Scale Horizontal Multitube Bundles. AIChE Symp. Ser. (Heat Transfer, Tulsa) vol. 68, no. 118, pp. 50–61.Google Scholar
  54. Palen, J. W., C. C. Shih, A. Yarden, and J. Taborek 1974, Performance Limitation in a Large-scale Thermosyphon Reboiler. Proc. 5th International Heat Transfer Conference, Tokyo, Japan, Paper HE22, vol. 5, pp. 204–208.Google Scholar
  55. Polley, G. T. 1980, Reboilers, in Developments in Heat Exchanger Technology, Part 1, ( D. Chisholm, Ed.) Barking, Essex, U.K.: Applied Science.Google Scholar
  56. Polley, G. T., T. Ralston, and I. D. R. Grant 1980, Forced Cross-Flow Boiling in an Ideal In-Line Tube Bundle. Paper 80-HT-46 (AS_th /AIChE Heat Transfer Conference, Orlando, Florida).Google Scholar
  57. Premoli, A., D. Francesco, and A. Prina 1971, A Dimensionless Correlation for Determining the Density of Two-Phase Mixtures. Termotecnica vol. 25, pp. 17–26.Google Scholar
  58. Robinson, D. B., and D. L. Katz 1951, Effect of Vapour Agitation on Boiling Coefficients. Chem. Eng. Prog. vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 317–324.Google Scholar
  59. Schuller, R. B., and K. Cornwell 1982, Dryout on the Shell Side of Tube Bundles. HTFS Research Symposium, Paper no. 447.Google Scholar
  60. Shellene, K. R., C. V. Sternling, N. H. Snyder, and D. M. Church 1968, Experimental Study of a Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler. Chem. Eng. Frog. Symp. Ser. vol. 64, no. 82, pp. 102–113.Google Scholar
  61. Shock, R. A. W. 1982, Multicomponent Boiling. Multiphase Science and Technology, vol. 1, G. F. Hewitt, J. M. Delhaye, and N. Zuber, Eds. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere, pp. 281–386.Google Scholar
  62. Steinmeyer, D. E. 1973, Liquid-in-Gas Dispersions. Chemical Engineers Handbook, R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton, Eds. Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 18–65.Google Scholar
  63. Stephan, K., and M. Körner 1969, Calculation of Heat Transfer in Evaporating Binary Liquid Mixtures. Chem. Ing. Tech. vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 409–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stephan, K., and P. Preusser 1978, Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Boiling of Polynary Mixtures. Sixth Int. Heat Transfer Conference, Toronto, vol. 1, pp. 187–192.Google Scholar
  65. TEMA 1978, Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. Sixth Edition. New York.Google Scholar
  66. Voloshko, A. A. 1972, Free Convection Boiling of Freons. Heat Transfer, Soy. Res. vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 60–66.Google Scholar
  67. Whalley, P. B., and D. Butterworth 1983, A Simple Method of Calculating the Recirculating Flow in Vertical Thermosyphon and Kettle Reboilers. 21st ASME/AIChE National Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. B. Whalley
    • 1
  • G. F. Hewitt
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Engineering ScienceUniversity of OxfordOxfordEngland
  2. 2.Engineering Sciences DivisionA.E.R.E. HarwellDidcot, OxfordshireEngland

Personalised recommendations