## Abstract

Reboilers are used widely in the process industry to generate a flux of vapor to feed to a distillation tower (or distillation column). The vapor rises up the tower contacting a downward flowing liquid stream, as shown in Fig. 1. The vapor is generated in the reboiler from the liquid stream leaving the lowest tray; the liquid is only partly evaporated, the remainder being partly recirculated through the reboiler and partly passed out of the system as the “bottom product” of the distillation tower. The mean residence time of the liquid in the bottom of the distillation tower (the “hold-up” time) is commonly 5–10 min.

### Keywords

Permeability Nickel Convection Enthalpy Foam## Preview

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