Analysis of Limonoids in Citrus Seeds
Limonoids are a group of chemically related triterpene derivatives found in the Rutaceae and Meliaceae families. Among the 38 limonoids reported to occur in citrus and its hybrids, four are known to be bitter in taste. These are limonin, nomilin, ichangin, and nomilinic acid. Limonin is the primary cause of citrus juice bitterness. This problem occurs in a variety of citrus juices, and it is economically important to the citrus industry because bitter juices have a lower market value for producers. Dekker (1988) has reviewed limonoid bitterness and postharvest juice debittering methods. Hasegawa (1989) has reviewed limonoid biochemistry and preharvest approaches to the bitterness problem.
KeywordsHigh Pressure Liquid Chromatography Orange Juice Agric Food Citrus Juice High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Analysis
Ratio of the distance traveled by a compound divided by the distance traveled by the solvent front (used in TLC)
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bennett RD, Hasegawa S (1981) Limonoids of calamondin seeds. Tetrahedron 37:17–24 Bennett RD, Hasegawa S (1982) 7-Oxygenated limonoids from the Rutacea. Phytochemistry 21:2349–2354Google Scholar
- Carter BA, Oliver DG, Jang L (1985) A comparison of methods for determining the limonin content of processed California navel orange juice. Food Technol 39: 82–86, 97Google Scholar
- Chandler BV (1971) Some solubility relationships of limonin. Their importance in orange juice bitterness. CSIRO Food Res Q 31: 36–40Google Scholar
- Dekker RFH (1988) De-bittering of citrus fruit juices: specific removal of limonin and other bitter principles. Aust J Biotech 2: 65–76Google Scholar
- Dreyer DL (1968) Limonoid bitter principles. In: Zechmeister L (ed) Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 191–244Google Scholar
- Kruger AJ, Colter CE (1972) Gas chromatographic identification of limonin in citrus juice. Proc Fla State Hortic Soc 85: 206–210Google Scholar
- Mansell RL, Weiler EW (1980) Radioimmunoassay for the determination of limonin in Citrus. Phytochemistry 19: 1403–1407Google Scholar