Seed Analysis pp 361-375 | Cite as

Analysis of Limonoids in Citrus Seeds

  • Z. Herman
  • C. H. Fong
  • S. Hasegawa
Part of the Modern Methods of Plant Analysis book series (MOLMETHPLANT, volume 14)


Limonoids are a group of chemically related triterpene derivatives found in the Rutaceae and Meliaceae families. Among the 38 limonoids reported to occur in citrus and its hybrids, four are known to be bitter in taste. These are limonin, nomilin, ichangin, and nomilinic acid. Limonin is the primary cause of citrus juice bitterness. This problem occurs in a variety of citrus juices, and it is economically important to the citrus industry because bitter juices have a lower market value for producers. Dekker (1988) has reviewed limonoid bitterness and postharvest juice debittering methods. Hasegawa (1989) has reviewed limonoid biochemistry and preharvest approaches to the bitterness problem.


High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Orange Juice Agric Food Citrus Juice High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations Used










Ethyl acetate






Ammonium chloride


Acetic acid


Sulfuric acid


Hydrogen chloride


Postassium bicarbonate


Phosphoric acid




Ratio of the distance traveled by a compound divided by the distance traveled by the solvent front (used in TLC)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Herman
  • C. H. Fong
  • S. Hasegawa

There are no affiliations available

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