• Gottfried Lemperle
  • Jürg Nievergelt


True instances of mammary hyperplasia and macromastia become apparent during adolescence and should be operatively treated at that time. Erosion of self-confidence, social isolation, and deterioration of self-image are some of the early psychological effects associated with this deformity. In addition, the weight of the enlarged breasts can lead to physical problems such as postural defects and myogeloses in the area of the cervical and upper thoracic spine, shoulder pain and furrowing from brassiere straps, and intertriginous eczema in the inframammary creases. The patient may be handicapped in her ability to engage in sports and other recreational activities, leading to problems in social adjustment and sometimes to neurotic postural attitudes.


Pyoderma Gangrenosum Breast Reduction Reduction Mammoplasty Reduction Mammaplasty Sternal Notch 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gottfried Lemperle
    • 1
  • Jürg Nievergelt
    • 2
  1. 1.Klinik für Plastische- und WiederherstellungschirurgieSt. Markus KrankenhausFrankfurt/Main50Germany
  2. 2.Service de chirurgie plastique et reconstructive, Centre des BrûlésLausanneSwitzerland

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