Advertisement

Nutrient Availability and Uptake by Tundra Plants

  • J. P. Schimel
  • K. Kielland
  • F. S. ChapinIII
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 120)

Abstract

Although tundra in the Imnavait Creek watershed is exposed to low temperature, a short growing season, and in many cases, anaerobic soils (see Chaps. 4, 6, and 11, this Vol.), nutrient availability is the factor that most strongly limits plant growth and productivity (Billings et al. 1984; Chapin and Shaver 1985). Nitrogen (N) is the most common limiting element in tundra communities (Barsdate and Alexander 1975), but phosphorus (P) may be either a sole or co-limiting nutrient (McKendrick et al. 1980; Shaver and Chapin 1986). Nitrogen fixation is slow (Alexander and Schell 1973), decomposition and mineralization are limited by cold soils (Nadelhoffer et al. 1991), and N and P immobilization are rapid (Kielland 1990), suggesting that competition from soil microorganisms may limit nutrient availability to plants.

Keywords

Arctic Tundra Tundra Soil Arctic Ecosystem Tundra Ecosystem Vehicle Track 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander V, Schell DM (1973) Seasonal and spatial variation on nitrogen fixation in the Barrow, Alaska, tundra. Arct Alp Res 5: 77–88Google Scholar
  2. Bääth E, Frostegärd A, Fritze H (1992) Soil bacterial biomass, activity, phospholipid fatty acid pattern, and pH tolerance in an area polluted with alkaline dust deposition. Appl Environ Microbiol 58: 4026–4031Google Scholar
  3. Babb TA (1977) High arctic disturbance studies associated with the Devon Island Project. In: Bliss LC (ed) Truelove Lowland, Devon Island, Canada: a high arctic ecosystem. Univ Alberta Press, Edmonton, pp 647–654Google Scholar
  4. Barel D, Barsdate RJ (1978) Phosphorus dynamics of wet coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. In: Adriano AC, Brisbin I (eds) Environmental chemistry and cycling processes. US DOE Symp Ser. NTIS, Washington, pp 516–537Google Scholar
  5. Barsdate RJ, Alexander V (1975) The nitrogen balance of arctic tundra: pathways, rates, and environmental implications. J Environ Qual 4: 111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billings WD, Peterson KM, Luken JO, Mortensen DA (1984) Interaction of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen on the carbon balance of tundra microcosms. Oecologia 65: 26–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bliss LC (1956) A comparison of plant development in microenvironments of arctic and alpine plants. Biol Rev 43: 481–530Google Scholar
  8. Bunnell FL, Miller OK, Flanagan PW, Benoit RE (1980) The microflora: composition, biomass, and environmental relations. In: Brown J, Miller PC, Tieszen LL, Bunnell FL (eds) An arctic ecosystem. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, pp 255–290Google Scholar
  9. Challinor JL, Gersper PL (1975) Vehicle perturbation effects upon a tundra soil-plant system. II. Effects on the chemical regime. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 39: 689–695Google Scholar
  10. Chapin FS III (1980) The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 11: 233–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chapin FS III (1983) Direct and indirect effects of temperature on arctic plants. Polar Biol 2: 47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chapin FS III, Bloom A (1976) Phosphate absorption: Adaptation of tundra graminoids to a low temperature, low phosphorus environment. Oikos 26: 111–121Google Scholar
  13. Chapin FS III, Shaver GR (1981) Changes in soil properties and vegetation following disturbance of Alaskan arctic tundra. J Appl Ecol 18: 605–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chapin FS III, Shaver GR (1985) Arctic. In: Chabot BF, Mooney HA (eds) Physiological ecology of North American plant communities. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 16–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapin FS III, Tryon PR (1982) Phosphate absorption and root respiration of different growth forms from northern Alaska. Holarct Ecol 5: 164–171Google Scholar
  16. Chapin FS III, Barsdate RJ, Barel D (1978) Phosphorus cycling in Alaskan coastal tundra: a hypothesis for the regulation of nutrient cycling. Oikos 31: 189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chapin FS III, Fetcher N, Kielland K, Everett KR, Linkins AE (1988) Productivity and nutrient cycling of Alaskan tundra: enhancement by flowing water. Ecology 69: 693–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chapin FS III, Jeffries RL, Reynolds JF, Shaver GR, Svoboda J (eds) (1992) Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  19. Chapin FS III, Moilanen L, Kielland K (1993) Preferential use of organic nitrogen for growth by a non-mycorrhizal arctic sedge. Nature 361: 150–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheng W, Virginia RA (1993) Measurement of microbial biomass in arctic tundra soils using fumigation-extraction and substrate-induced respiration procedures. Soil Biol Biochem 25: 135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clarkson DT, Hanson JB (1980) The mineral nutrition of higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31: 239–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clein JS, Schimel JP (1995) Microbial activity of tundra and taiga soils at sub-zero temperatures. Soil Biol Biochem 27: 1231–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coxson DS, Parkinson D (1987) Winter respiratory activity in aspen woodland forest floor litter and soils. Soil Biol Biochem 19: 49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DeLuca TH, Keeney DR, McCarty GW (1992) Effect of freeze-thaw events on mineralization of soil nitrogen. Biol Fertil Soils 14: 116–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flanagan PW, Bunnell FL (1980) Microflora activities and decomposition. In: Brown J, Miller PC, Tieszen LL, Bunnell FL (eds) An arctic ecosystem. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, pp 291–334Google Scholar
  26. Flanagan PW, Van Cleve K (1977) Microbial biomass, respiration and nutrient cycling in a black spruce taiga ecosystem. Ecol Bull (Stockholm) 25: 261–273Google Scholar
  27. Gersper PL, Alexander V, Barkley SA, Barsdate RJ, Flint PS (1980) The soils and their nutrients. In: Brown J, Miller PC, Tieszen LL, Bunnell FL (eds) An arctic ecosystem. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, pp 219–254Google Scholar
  28. Giblin AE, Nadelhoffer KJ, Shaver GR, Laundre JA, McKerrow AJ (1991) Biogeochemical diversity along a riverside toposequence in arctic Alaska. Ecol Monogr 61: 415–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hatch AB (1937) The physical basis of mycotrophy in the genus Pinus. Black Rock For Bull 6, 168 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Hinzman LD, Kane DL, Gieck RE, Everett KR (1991) Hydrologic and thermal properties of the active layer in the Alaskan arctic. Cold Regions Sci Tech 19: 95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ivarson KC (1974) Comparative survival and decomposing ability of four fungi isolated from leaf litter at low temperatures. Can J Soil Sci 54: 245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jackson LE, Schimel JP, Firestone MK (1989) Short-term partitioning of ammonium and nitrate between plants and microbes in an annual grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 21: 409–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jonasson S, Chapin FS III (1985) Significance of sequential leaf development for nutrient balance of the cotton sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum L. Oecologia 67: 511–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jonasson S, Chapin FS III (1991) Seasonal uptake and allocation of phosphorus in Eriophorum vaginatum L., measured by labelling with 32P. New Phytol 118: 349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson DW, Edwards NT (1979) The effects of stem girdling on biogeochemical cycles within a mixed deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee: II. Soil nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates. Oecologia 40: 259–271Google Scholar
  36. Kielland K (1990) Processes controlling nitrogen release and turnover in arctic tundra. PhD thesis, Univ Alaska, FairbanksGoogle Scholar
  37. Kielland K, Chapin FS III (1992) Nutrient absorption and accumulation in arctic tundra. In: Chapin FS III, Jeffries RL, Reynolds JF, Shaver GR, Svoboda J (eds) Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 321–335Google Scholar
  38. Kummerow J, Russell M (1980) Seasonal root growth in the Arctic tussock tundra. Oecologia 47: 196–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kummerow J, Ellis BA, Kummerow S, Chapin FS III (1983) Spring growth of shoots and roots in shrubs of an Alaskan muskeg. Am J Bot 70: 1509–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lachenbruch AH, Marshall BV (1986) Changing climate: geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan arctic. Science 234: 689–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leadley PW, Reynolds JF, Chapin FS III (1996) A model of ammonium, nitrate, and glycine uptake by Eriophorum vaginatum roots in the field: ecological implications. (submitted)Google Scholar
  42. Linkins AE, Melillo JM, Sinsabaugh RL (1984) Factors affecting cellulase activity in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In: Klug MJ, Reddy CA (eds) Current perspectives in microbial ecology. Am Soc Microbiol, Washington DC, pp 572–579Google Scholar
  43. Marion GM, Black CH (1987) The effect of time and temperature on nitrogen mineralization in arctic tundra soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 1501–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marion GM, Everett KR (1989) The effect of nutrient and water addition on elemental mobility through small tundra watersheds. Holarct Ecol 12: 317–323Google Scholar
  45. Marion GM, Kummerow J (1990) Ammonium uptake by field grown Eriophorum vaginatum under laboratory and simulated field conditions. Holarct Ecol 13: 50–55Google Scholar
  46. Marion GM. Miller PC (1982) Nitrogen mineralization in a tussock tundra soil. Arct Alp Res 14: 287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Marion GM, Miller PC, Kummerow J, Oechel WC (1982) Competition for nitrogen in a tussock tundra ecosystem. Plant Soil 66: 317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maxwell B (1992) Arctic climate: potential for change under global warming. In: Chapin FS III, Jeffries RL, Reynolds JF, Shaver GR, Svoboda J (eds) Arctic ecosystems in a changing climate. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 11–34Google Scholar
  49. McClaugherty CA, Linkins AE (1990) Temperature responses of enzymes in two forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 22: 29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McKendrick JD, Batzli GO, Everett KR, Swanson JC (1980) Some effects of mammalian herbivores and fertilization on tundra soils and vegetation. Arct Alp Res 12: 565–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miller PC, Mangan R, Kummerow J (1982) Vertical distribution of organic matter in eight vegetation types near Eagle Summit, Alaska. Holarct Ecol 5: 117–124Google Scholar
  52. Myrold DD (1987) Relationship between microbial biomass nitrogen and a nitrogen availability index. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 1047–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nadelhoffer KJ, Giblin AE, Shaver GR, Laudre JA (1991) Effects of temperature and substrate quality on element mineralization in six arctic soils. Ecology 72: 242–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Oberbauer SF, Hastings SJ, Beyers JL, Oechel WC (1989) Comparative effects of downslope water and nutrient movement on plant nutrition, photosynthesis, and growth in Alaskan tundra. Holarct Ecol 12: 324–334Google Scholar
  55. Oechel WC, Van Cleve K (1986) The role of bryophytes in nutrient cycling in the taiga. In: Van Cleve K, Chapin FS III, Flanagan PW, Viereck LA, Dyrness CT (eds) Forest ecosystems in the Alaskan Taiga: a synthesis of structure and function. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 121–137Google Scholar
  56. Oechel WC, Hastings SJ, Vourlitis G, Jenkins M, Riechers G, Grulke N (1993) Recent change of Arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon dioxide sink to a source. Science 361: 520–523Google Scholar
  57. Parton WJ, Schimel DS, Cole CV, Ojima DS (1987) Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Sci Sco Am J 51: 1173–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Paul EA, Voroney RP (1984) Field interpretation of microbial biomass activity measurements. In: Klug MJ, Reddy CA (eds) Current perspectives in microbial ecology. Am Soc Microbiol, Washington DC, pp 509–514Google Scholar
  59. Read DJ (1991) Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. Experimentia 47: 376–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schimel JP (1995) Ecosystem consequences of microbial diversity and community structure. In: Chapin FS III, Körner C (eds) Arctic and Alpine biodiversity. Ecological Studies 115. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 239–254Google Scholar
  61. Schimel JP, Jackson LE, Firestone MK (1989a) Spatial and temportal effects on plant–microbial competition for inorganic nitrogen in a California annual grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 21: 1059–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schimel JP, Scott W, Killham K (1989b) Changes in cytoplasmic carbon and nitrogen pools in a soil bacterium and a fungus in response to salt stress. Appl Envir Microbiol 55: 1635–1637Google Scholar
  63. Shaver GR, Billings WD (1975) Root production and root turnover in a wet tundra ecosystem, Barrow, Alaska. Ecology 56: 401–409Google Scholar
  64. Shaver GR, Billings WD (1977) Effects of day length and temperature on root elongation in tundra graminoids. Oecologia 28: 57–65Google Scholar
  65. Shaver GR, Chapin FS III (1986) Effect of fertilizer on production and biomass of tussock tundra, Alaska, USA. Arct Alp Res 18: 261–268Google Scholar
  66. Shaver GR, Cutler JD (1979) The vertical distribution of live vascular phytomass in cottongrass tussock tundra. Arct Alp Res 11: 335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shaver GR, Chapin FS III, Gartner BL (1986) Factors limiting seasonal growth and peak biomass accumulation in Eriophorum vaginatum in Alaskan tussock tundra. J Ecol 74: 257–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Silberbush M, Barber SA (1983) Prediction of phosphorus and potassium uptake by soybeans with a mechanistic mathematical model. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 262–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sinsabaugh RL, Linkins AE (1989) Natural disturbance and the activity of Trichoderma viride cellulase complexes. Soil Biol Biochem 21: 835–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Skogland T, Lomeland S Goksoyr J (1988) Respiratory burst after freezing and thawing of soil: experiments with soil bacteria. Soil Biol Biochem 20: 851–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Smith JL, Paul EA (1986) The role of soil type and vegetation on microbial biomass and activity. In: Megusar F, Ganar M (eds) Perspectives in microbial ecology. Slovene Soc Microbiol, Ljubljana, pp 460–466Google Scholar
  72. Smith JL, Norton JM, Paul EA (1989) Decomposition of 14C- and 15 N- labeled organisms in soil under anaerobic conditions. Plant Soil 116: 115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Souldes DA, Allison FE (1961) Effect of drying and freezing soils on carbon dioxide production, available mineral nutrients, aggregation, and bacterial population, Soil Sci 91: 291–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tam T-Y, Mayfield CI, Inniss WE (1983) Microbial decomposition of leaf material at 0°C. Microb Ecol 9: 355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Taylor BR, Jones HG (1990) Litter decomposition under snow cover in a balsam fir forest. Can J Bot 68: 112–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Taylor BR, Parkinson D (1988) Does repeated freezing and thawing accelerate decay of leaf litter? Soil Biol Biochem 20: 657–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Waring RH, Schlesinger WH (1985) Forest ecosystems. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Wein RW, Bliss LC (1974) Primary production in arctic cottongrass tussock tundra communities. Arct Alp Res 6: 261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Whalen SC, Cornwell JC (1985) Nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon cycling in an arctic lake. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42: 797–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Widden P, Parkinson D (1978) The effects of temperature on growth of four high arctic soil fungi in a three phase system. Can J Microbiol 24: 415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zak DR, Groffman PM, Pregitzer KS, Christensen S, Tiedje JM (1990) The vernal dam: plant- microbe competition for nitrogen in northern hardwood forests. Ecology 71: 651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Schimel
  • K. Kielland
  • F. S. ChapinIII

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations