The Bilateral Cooperative Model of Reading

  • M. Martin Taylor


The Bilateral Cooperative Model of reading (BLC model) provides a descriptive framework within which not only reading, but also many of the processes used in language and symbolic thought may be considered. It is not a mathematical model of cognitive processes, and may not be easily amenable to computer simulation. Nevertheless, its use has proved stimulating to the author in considering many issues of perception, cognition, and scientific thought. In this chapter, the BLC model is described and its descriptive value illustrated through examples from the experimental psychology literature, dealing with levels of abstraction from recognizing letters to learning complex cognitive structures.


Target Word Word Recognition Spatial Ability Semantic Priming Visual Word Recognition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, M. J. (1979). Models of word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 133–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alegria, J., Pignot, E., and Morais, J. (1982). Phonetic analysis of speech and memory codes in beginning readers. Memory and Cognition, 10, 451–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amano, K. (1970). Formation of the act of analyzing phonemic structure of words and its relation to learning Japanese syllabic characters (Kanamoji). Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 1970, 18, 76 — 89 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  4. Anglin, J. M. (1977). Word, object and conceptual development. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  5. Baron, J., and Strawson, C. (1976). Use of orthographic and word-specific mechanisms in reading words aloud. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2, 386 — 393.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, J. (1973). Similarity grouping of curves. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 36, 1331–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, J. (1983). Textural segmentation, second-order statistics, and textural elements. Biological Cybernetics 48, 125 —130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouma, H. (1971). Visual recognition of isolated lower-case letters. Vision Research, 11, 459 — 474.Google Scholar
  9. Bradley, L., and Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: a causal connection. Nature, 301, 419–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broadbent, D.E., and Broadbent, M. H. P. (1980). Priming and the active/passive model of word recognition. In Nickerson, R. S. (Ed), Attention and performance, vol 8. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Brownell, H.H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., and Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but coherence: Sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and Language, 18, 20–27.Google Scholar
  12. Butler, B. E., and Hains, S. (1979). Individual differences in word recognition latency. Memory and Cognition, 7, 68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Capra, F. (1976). The Tao of physics. Boulder: Stromhala.Google Scholar
  14. Carpenter, P. A., and Just, M.A. (1975). Sentence comprehension: a psycholinguistic processing model of verification. Psychological Review, 82, 45–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheeseman, J., and Merikle, P. (1985). Word recognition and consciousness. In Besner, D., Waller, T. G., and MacKinnon, G. E. (Eds.), Reading research: Advances in theory and practice, Vol. S. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  16. Chu-Chang, M., and Loritz, D.J. (1977). Phonological encoding of Chinese ideograms in short-term memory. Language Learning, 27, 344–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarke, H. H., and Chase, W. G. (1972). On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 472–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cramer, P. (1968). Word association. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  19. Groot, A. M. B. (1983). The range of automatic spreading activation in word priming. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 22, 417–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Groot, A.M. B., Thomassen, A. J. W. M., and Hudson, P. T. W. (1982). Associative facilitation of word recognition as measured from a neutral prime. Memory and Cognition, 10, 358–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eisenberg, P., and Becker, C.A. (1982). Semantic context effects in visual word recognition, sentence processing, and reading: Evidence for semantic strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 739–756.Google Scholar
  22. Entwisle, D. R., Forsyth, D. F., and Muus, R. (1964). The syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift in children’s word association. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 3, 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ervin, S.M. (1961). Changes with age in verbal determinants of word association. American Journal of Psychology, 74, 361–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feldman, L. B. (1981). Visual word recognition in Serbo-Croatian is necessarily phonological.Google Scholar
  25. Status report on speech research SR-66. Haskins Laboratories, April-June.Google Scholar
  26. Foss, D.J. (1982). A discourse on semantic priming. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 590–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Friedman, R. B. (1980). Identity without form: abstract representations of letters. Perception and Psychophysics 28, 53–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gekoski, W.L., Jacobson, J. Z., and Frazao-Brown, A. P. (1982). Visual masking and linguistic independence in bilinguals. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 36, 108–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Green, D. M., and Swets, J. A. (1966). Signal Detection Theory and psychophysics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Hanson, V.L., and Bellugi, U. (1982). On the role of sign order and morphological structure in memory for American Sign Language sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 621–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hirst, G. (1983). Semantic interpretation against ambiguity. Technical report CS-83–25. Providence, RI: Brown University Dept of Computer Science.Google Scholar
  32. Holender, D. (1986). Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: a survey and appraisal. The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 9, 1–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holley-Wilcox, P., and Blank, M.A. (1980). Evidence for multiple access in the processing of isolated words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 6, 75–84.Google Scholar
  34. Holmes, V. M. (1979). Accessing ambiguous words during sentence comprehension. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 569–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Isenor, D. K., and Zaky, S. G. (1986). Fingerprint identification using graph matching. Pattern Recognition, 19, 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jacob, F., and Monod, J. (1961). On the regulation of gene activity. In Cellular regulatory mechanisms, vol 26. Cold Spring Harbour symposia on quantitative biology.Google Scholar
  37. Jacobson, J. Z. (1974). Interaction of similarity to words of visual masks and targets. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 431–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jacobson, J. Z. (1976) Visual masking by homonyms. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 30, 174–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jacobson, J.Z., and Rhinelander, G. (1978). Gemoetric and semantic similarity in visual masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4, 224–231.Google Scholar
  40. Jensen, H. (1970) Sign, aymbol and script. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  41. Johnston, J. C., and McClelland, J. L. (1973). Visual factors in word perception. Perception and Psychophysics, 14, 365–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Johnston, J. C., and McClelland, J. L. (1980). Experimental tests of a hierarchical model of word identification. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 503–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jones, B. (1982). The integrative action of the cerebral hemispheres. Perception and Psychophysics, 32, 423–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Julesz, B. ( 1981 a). A theory of preattentive texture discrimination based on first-order statistics of textons. Biological Cybernetica, 41, 131–138.Google Scholar
  45. Julesz, B. ( 1981 b). Textons, the elements of texture perception, and their interactions. Nature, 290, 91–97.Google Scholar
  46. Kohonen, T. (1982). Self-organized formation of topologically correct feature maps. Biological Cybernetics, 43, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kutas, M., and Hillyard, S.A. (1980). Reading senseless sentences: brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science 207, 203–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kutas, M., and Hillyard, S.A. (1982). The lateral distribution of event-related potentials during sentence processing.Neuropsychologia, 20, 579–590.Google Scholar
  49. MacLeod, C. M., Hunt, E. B., and Mathews, N. (1978). Individual differences in the verification of sentence-picture relationships. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 493–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marcel, A. J. (1980). Conscious and preconscious recognition of polysemous words: locating the selective effects of prior verbal context. In Nickerson, R. S. (Ed.), Attention and Performance, vol 8. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  51. Marcus, S. M. (1981). ERIS-context-sensitive coding in speech perception. Journal of Phonetics, 9, 197–220.Google Scholar
  52. Meltzer, E. S. (1980). Remarks on ancient Egyptian writing with emphasis on its mnemonic aspects. In Kolers, R. A., Wrolstad, M. E., and Bouma, H. (Eds). Processing of visible language, vol. 2. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  53. Morais, J., Cary, L., Alegria, J., and Bertelson, P. (1979). Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phones arise spontaneously? Cognition, 7, 323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Muraishi, S., and Amano, K. (1972). Reading and writing abilities of preschoolers: a summary. Tokyo: The National Language Research Institute (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  55. Nishikawa, Y., and Niina, S. (1981). Modes of information processing underlying hemispheric functional differences. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 51, 335–341 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  56. Ogbom, J. M., and Johnson, L. (1982). Conversation Theory. Technical Report MCSG/TR30. Div. of Cybernetics, Brunel University.Google Scholar
  57. Pask, G. (1984). Review of Conversation Theory and a protologic (or protolanguage) Lp. Education Communications and Technology Journal, 32, 3–40.Google Scholar
  58. Pask, G., and Scott, B.C. E. (1972). Learning strategies and individual competence. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 4, 217–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pask, G., and Scott, B. C. E. (1973). CASTE: a system for exhibiting learning strategies and regulating uncertainties. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 5, 17–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Petrey, S. (1977). Word associations and the development of lexical memory. Cognition, 5, 57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rausch, R. (1981). Lateralization of temporal lobe dysfunction and verbal encoding. Brain and Language, 12, 92–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rayner, K., and Posnansky, C. (1978). Stages of processing in word identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 107, 64–80.Google Scholar
  63. Rumelhart, D.E., and Norman, D.A. (1973). Active semantic networks as a model of human memory. Report CHIP 33. Center for Human Information Processing. San Diego: University of California.Google Scholar
  64. Rumelhart, D.E., Lindsay, P. H., and Norman, D.A. (1972). A process model for long-term memory. In Tulving, E., and Donaldson, W. (Eds.), Organization of memory. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  65. Schank, R. C. (1972). Conceptual dependency: a theory of natural language understanding. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 552–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schvaneveldt, R. W., Meyer, D. E., and Becker, C.A. (1976). Lexical ambiguity, semantic context, and visual word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2, 243–256.Google Scholar
  67. Scribner, S., and Cole, M. (1981). The psychology of literacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Selfridge, O. (1959). Pandemonium: a paradigm for learning. In Symposium on the mechanisation of thought processes. London: HM Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  69. Stevens, W.J. (1973). Verb types in modern English. Language Sciences, 26, 29–31.Google Scholar
  70. Suter, S. (1982). Differences between deaf and hearing adults in task-related EEG asymmetries. Psychophysiology, 19, 124–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tattersall, G. D., and Johnston, R. D. (1984). Self organizing arrays for speech recognition. Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics.Google Scholar
  72. Taylor, I., and Taylor, M. M. (1983). The psychology of reading. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  73. Taylor, J. G. (1962). The behavioral basis of perception. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Taylor, M. M. (1973). The problem of stimulus structure in behavioral theory of perception. South African Journal of Psychology, 3, 23–45.Google Scholar
  75. Taylor, M. M. (1974). Speculations on bilingualism and the cognitive network. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 2, 68–124Google Scholar
  76. Taylor, M. M. (1981/1984). The Bilateral Cooperative Model of reading: a human paradigm for artificial intelligence. In: Elithorn, A., and Banerji, R. (Eds.), Artificial and Human Intelligence. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Distributed as DCIEM Research Paper 81P - 4, 1981.Google Scholar
  77. Tweedy, J. R., and Lapinski, R. H. (1981). Facilitating word recognition: evidence for strategic and automatic factors. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 33 A, 51–59.Google Scholar
  78. Tzeng, O. J. L., Hung, D. L., and Wang, S. Y. (1977). Speech recoding in reading Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3, 621–630.Google Scholar
  79. Wapner, W., Hamby, S., and Gardner, H. (1981). The role of the right hemisphere in the apprehension of complex linguistic materials. Brain and Language, 14, 15–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Waters, G. S., and Seidenberg, M. S. (1986). Spelling-sound effects in reading: time-course and decision criteria. Memory and Cognition, 13, 557–572.Google Scholar
  81. Waters, G. S., Seidenberg, M. S., and Bruck, M. (1984). Children’s and adults’ use of spellingsound information in three reading tasks. Memory and Cognition, 12, 293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Winner, E., and Gardner, H. (1977). The comprehension of metaphor in brain-damaged patients. Brain, 100, 717–729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yik, W.F. (1978). The effect of visual and acoustic similarity on short-term memory for Chinese words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 487–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Martin Taylor
    • 1
  1. 1.Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental MedicineDownsviewCanada

Personalised recommendations