Advertisement

Formation, Chemical Composition and Function of Melanin Pigments

  • Kowichi Jimbow
  • Thomas B. Fitzpatrick
  • Walter C. QuevedoJr.

Abstract

Pigments of the mammalian skin may be divided into four major classes; (a) brown-black pigments of melanin, (b) yellow pigments of carotinoid, (c) red pigments of oxygenated hemoglobulin and (d) blue pigments of reduced hemoglobulin. The major determinant of skin pigmentation is melanin. Pigmentation is related to the number, size, type, and distribution pattern of melanin-containing cytoplasmic particles, i.e. melanosomes (Seiji et al. 1961; Jimbow et al. 1976). The melanosomes are products of secretory cells, melanocytes, that are present in the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanocytes transfer their product, melanosomes, into keratinocytes, and they become distributed throughout the epidermis by the upward movement of basal keratinocytes. The symbiotic interaction of these different cells, i.e. melanocytes and the associated pool of keratinocytes, is called epidermal melanin unit (Fitzpatrick and Breathnach 1963) (Fig. 1, cf. Fig. 1, Chap.12,this Vol.).

Keywords

Electron Spin Resonance Melanin Pigment Melanin Pigmentation Epidermal Melanin Cysteamine Hydrochloride 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bagnara JT, Matsumoto J, Ferris W, Frost SK, Turner WA, Tchen TT, Taylor JD (1979) Common origin of pigment cells. Science 203: 410–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blois MS Jr, Zahlan AB, Maling JE (1964) Electron spin resonance studies on melanin. Biophys J 4: 471–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borovansky J, Duchon J (1974) Chemical composition of hair melanosomes. Dermatologica 149: 116–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borovansky J, Zearn PR, Bleehen SS, Russell RGG (1980) Distribution of Zn in mice with melanomas and in the subcellular fractions of melanomas. Neoplasma 27: 247–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chedekel MR (1982) Photochemistry and photobiology of epidermal melanins. Photochem Photobiol 35: 881–885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chedekel MR, Smith SK, Post PW, Pokora A, Vessell DL (1978) Photodestruction of pheomelanin: Role of oxygen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 5395–5399Google Scholar
  7. Fitzpatrick TB, Breathnach AB (1963) Das epidermale Melanin-Einheit-System. Dermatol Wochenschr 147: 481–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hearing VJ, Körner AM, Pawelek JM (1982) New regulators of melanogenesis are associated with purified tyrosinase isozymes. J Invest Dermatol 79: 16–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ito S, Jimbow K (1983) Quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in hair and melanomas. J Invest Dermatol 80: 268–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ito S, Novellino E, Chioccara F, Misuraca G, Prota G (1980) Copolymerization of dopa and cysteinyldopa in melanogenesis in vitro. Experientia 36: 822–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jimbow K, Fitzpatrick TB (1974) Characterization of a new melanosomal structural component–the vesculo globular body–by conventional transmission, high voltage, and scanning electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res 48: 268–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jimbow K, Kukita A (1971) Fine structure of pigment granules in the human hair bulb: Ultrastructure of pigment granules. In: Kawamura T, Fitzpatrick TB (eds) Biology of normal and abnormal melanocytes. Univ Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 171–193Google Scholar
  13. Jimbow K, Takeuchi T (1979) Mode of activation and differentiation of dormant melanocytes after UV exposure to studies of melanogensis. In: Klaus SN (ed) Biologic basis of pigmentation. Pigment cell, vol IV. Karger Basel, pp 337–344Google Scholar
  14. Jimbow K, Uesugi T (1982) New melanogenesis and photobiological processes in activation and proliferation of precursor melanocytes after UV exposure; ultrastructural differentiation of precursor melanocytes from Langerhans cells. J Invest Dermatol 78: 108–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jimbow K, Pathak MA, Szabo G, Fitzpatrick TB (1974) Ultrastructural changes in human melanocytes after ultraviolet radiation. In: Pathak MA, Harber LC, Seiji M, Kukita A, Fitzpatrick TB (eds) Sunlight and man. Univ Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 195–215Google Scholar
  16. Jimbow K, Szabo G, Fitzpatrick TB (1974) Ultrastructural investigation of autophagocytosis of melanosomes and programmed death of melanocytes in White Leghorn feathers: A study of morphogenetic events leading to hypomelanosis. Dev Biol 36: 8–23Google Scholar
  17. Jimbow K, Roth S, Fitzpatrick TB, Szabo G (1975) Mitotic activity in non-neoplastic melanocytes in vivo as determined by histochemical, autoradiographic and electron microscopic studies. J Cell Biol 66: 663–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jimbow K, Quevedo WC Jr, Fitzpatrick TB, Szabo G (1976) Some aspects of melanin biology: 1950–1975. J Invest Dermatol 67: 72–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jimbow K, Oikawa O, Sugiyama S, Takeuchi T (1979) Comparison of eumelanogenesis and pheomelanogenesis in retinal and follicular melanocytes: Role of vesiculo-globular bodies in melanosome morphogenesis. J Invest Dermatol 73: 278–284Google Scholar
  20. Jimbow K, Jimbow M, Chiba M (1982) Characterization of structural properties for morphological differentiation of melanosomes; II. Electron microscopic and SDS-PAGE comparison of melanosomal matrix proteins in B16 and Harding Passey melanomas. J Invest Dermatol 78: 76–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jimbow M, Kanoh H, Jimbow K (1982) Characterization and biochemical properties of melan-Google Scholar
  22. osomes for structural and functional differentiation. J Invest Dermatol 79:97–103Google Scholar
  23. Jimbow K, Homma K, Takahashi H, Maeda K (1983) Melanosome morphogenesis and typeGoogle Scholar
  24. of melanogenesis in malignant melanoma. Int Pigment Cell Bull 3:7–8Google Scholar
  25. Körner A, Pawelek J (1980) A possible control point in melanin biosynthesis. J Invest Dermatol 75: 192–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Körner A, Pawelek J (1982) Mammalian tyrosinase catalyzes three reactions in the biosynthesis of melanin. Science 217: 1163–1165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Logan A, Weatherhead B (1980) Post-tyrosinase inhibition of melanogenesis by melatonin in hair follicles in vitro. J Invest Dermatol 74: 47–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mason HS (1948) The chemistry of melanin III. Mechanism of the oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine by tyrosinase. J Biol Chem 172: 83–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Maul GG, Brumbaugh JA (1971) On the possible function of coated vesicles in melanogenesis of the regenerating fowl feather. J Cell Biol 48: 41–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mishima Y, Imokawa G, Ogura H (1979) Functional and three-dimensional differentiation of smooth membrane structures in melanogenesis. In: Klaus SN (ed) Biologic basis of pigmentation. Pigment cell, vol IV. Karger, Basel, pp 277–290Google Scholar
  31. Nicholson JM, Montague PM, Hearing VJ (1981) SDS soluble but Triton X-100-insoluble normal and malignant melanosomal proteins. In: Seiji M (ed) Pigment cell 1981. Univ Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 107–112Google Scholar
  32. Nicolaus RA, Piatelli M (1965) Progress in the chemistry of natural black pigments. Rend Acad Sci Fis Mat (Naples) 32: 1–17Google Scholar
  33. Nicolaus RA, Piattelli M, Fattorusso E (1964) The structure of melanins and melanogenesis, vol IV. Pergamon Press, Oxford New York (Tetrahedron 20: 1163–1172 )Google Scholar
  34. Nishioka K (1978) Particulate tyrosinase of human malignant melanoma; solubilization, purification following trypsin treatment and characterization. Eur J Biochem 85: 137–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Novikoff AB, Albala A, Biempica L (1968) Ultrastructural and cytochemical observations on B16 and Harding Passey mouse melanomas. J Histochem Cytochem 16: 299–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Novikoff PM, Novikoff AB, Quintana N, Hauw J-J (1971) Golgi apparatus, GERL and lysosomes of neurons in rat dorsal root ganglia, studied by thick section and thin section cytochemistry. J Cell Biol 50: 859–886Google Scholar
  37. Pathak MA, Jimbow K, Szabo G, Fitzpatrick TB (1976) Sunlight and melanin pigmentation. In: Smith KC (ed) Photochemical and photobiological reviews, vol 1. Plenum Press, New York London, pp 211–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pawelek JM (1976) Factors regulating growth and pigmentation of melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol 66: 201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pawelek J, Körner A, Bergstrom A, Bologna J (1980) New regulators of melanin biosynthesis and the autodestruction of melanoma cells. Nature 289: 617–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Prota G (1980) Recent advances in the chemistry of melanogenesis in mammals. J Invest Dermatol 75: 122–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Prota G, Nicolaus RA (1967) On the biogenesis of phaeomelanins. In: Montagna WU, Hu F (eds) Pergamon Press, Oxford New York (Adv Biol Skin 8: 323–328 )Google Scholar
  42. Prota G, Rorsman H, Rosengren A-M, Rosengren E (1976) Occurrence of trichochromes in the urine of a melanoma patient. Experientia 32: 1122–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Quevedo WC Jr, Smith JA (1963) Studies on radiation-induced tanning of skin. Ann NY Acad Sci 100: 364–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Quevedo WC Jr, Szabo G, Virks J, Sinesi SI (1965) Melanocyte populations in UV-irradiated human skin. J Invest Dermatol 45: 295–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Quevedo WC Jr, Fitzpatrick TB, Pathak MA, Jimbow K (1974) Light and skin color. In: Fitzpatrick TB, Pathak MA, Harber LC, Seiji M, Kukita A (eds) Sunlight and man. Univ Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 165–194Google Scholar
  46. Raper HS (1928) The aerobic oxidases. Physiol Rev 8: 245–282Google Scholar
  47. Sealy RC, Hyde JS, Felix CC, Menon IA, Prota G (1982) Eumelanins and pheomelanins: Characterization by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Science 217: 545–547Google Scholar
  48. Seiji M, Fitzpatrick TB, Birbeck MSC (1961) The melanosome: A distinctive subcellular particle of mammalian melanocytes and the site of melanogenesis. J Invest Dermatol 36: 243–252Google Scholar
  49. Silver AF, Chase HB, Potten CS (1969) Melanocyte precursor cells in the hair follicle germ during the dormant stage (telogen). Experientia 25: 299–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Szabo G (1954) The number of melanocytes in human epidermis. Br Med J 1: 1016–1021PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Turner WA Jr, Taylor JD, Tchen TT (1975) Melanosome formation in the goldfish: The role of multivesicular bodies. J Ultrastruct Res 51: 16–31Google Scholar
  52. Zimmerman J (1982) Four new proteins of the eumelanosome matrix of the chick pigment epithelium. J Exp Zool 219: 1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kowichi Jimbow
    • 1
  • Thomas B. Fitzpatrick
    • 2
  • Walter C. QuevedoJr.
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of DermatologySapporo Medical CollegeSapporo 060Japan
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Biology and MedicineBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations