Advertisement

Calcium Metabolism and Its Relationship to Blood Pressure in Humans

  • A. Hvarfner
Conference paper

Abstract

Essential hypertension (EHT) is a condition carrying increased risk of vascular morbidity and death. Whether the blood pressure per se or hither to unidentified factors associated with EHT are the cause of this morbidity is not well understood, neither are the mechanisms behind the development of hypertension yet known. Let us imagine how this group of subjects at risk for vascular disease might have been identified if the invention of the calcium atomic absorption technique, the ionized calcium analyzer, and the parathyroid hormone assay had preceded the invention of the sphygmomanometer — and furthermore had been at least as easy to employ in the screening of populations.

Keywords

Parathyroid Hormone Essential Hypertension Cytosolic Calcium Calcium Metabolism Serum Free Fatty Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hvarfner A, Ljunghall S, Mörlin C, Wide L, Bergström R (1986) Indices of mineral metabolism in relation to blood pressure in a sample of a healthy population. Acta Med Scand 219: 461–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hvarfner A, Bergström R, Mörlin C, Wide L, Ljunghall S (1987) Relationships between calcium metabolic indices and blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension as compared with a healthy population. J Hypertens 5: 451–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hvarfner A, Larsson R, Mörlin C, Rastad J, Wide L, Akerström G, Ljunghall S (1988) Cytosolic free calcium in platelets: relationship to blood pressure and indices of systemic calcium metabolism. J Hypertens 6: 71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hvarfner A, Mörlin C, Wide L, Ljunghall S (1989) Interactions between indices of calcium metabolism and blood pressure during an intravenous calcium infusion in humans. J Hum Hypertens 3: 211–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hvarfner A, Bergström R, Mörlin C, Theodorsson E, Ljunghall S (1988) The calcitonin gene related peptide ( CGRP) response to intravenous calcium is related to blood pressure. Acta Physiol Scand 132: 439–440Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hvarfner A, Bergström R, Lithell H, Mörlin C, Wide L, Ljunghall S (1988) Changes in calcium metabolic indices during long-term treatment of patients with essential hypertension. Clin Sci 75: 543, 549Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hvarfner A, Mörlin C, Präntare H, Wide L, Ljunghall S (1990) Calcium metabolic indices, vascular retinopathy and plasma renin activity in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 3(12) (in press)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hallam TJ, Sanchez A, Rink TJ (1984) Stimulus-response coupling in human platelets. Biochem J 218: 819–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hallam TJ, Thompson NT, Scrutton MC, Rink TJ (1984) The role of cytoplasmic free calcium in the response of quin2-loaded human platelets of vasopressin. Biochem J 221: 897–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hallam TJ, Daniel JL, Kendrick-Jones J, Rink TJ (1985) Relationship between cytoplasmic free calcium and myosin light chain phosphorylation in intact platelets. Biochem J 232: 373–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lindner A, Keuny M, Meacham Ai (1987) Effects of a circulating factor in patients with essential hypertension on intracellular free calcium in normal platelets. N Engl J Med 316: 509–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Niedermann R, Pollard TD (1975) Human platelet myosin. II In vitro assembly and structure of myosin filaments. J Cell Biol 67: 72–79Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Erne P, Bolli P, Bürgiesser E, Bühler FR (1984) Correclation of platelet calcium with blood pressure effect of antihypertensive therapy. N Engl J Med 310: 1084–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Webb RC, Bohr DF (1978) Mechanism of membrane stabilization by calcium in vascular smooth muscle. Am J Physiol 235: 227–232Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Orlov SN, Postnov YV (1982) Ca+2 binding and membrane fluidity in essential and renal hypertension. Clin Sci 63: 281–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robinson BF (1984) Altered calcium handing as a cause of primary hypertension. J Hypertens 2: 543–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sprenger KGB (1985) Alteration of cellular calcium metabolism as primary cause of hypertension. Clin Physiol Biochem 3: 208–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marone C, Beretta-Piccolo C, Weidmann P (1980) Acute hypercalcemic hypertension in man: role of hemodynamics, catecholamines and renin. Kidney Int 20: 92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Berl T, Levi M, Ellis M, Chaimovitz C (1985) Mechanism of acute hypercalcemic hypertension in the conscious rat. Hypertension 7: 923–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lau K, Eby B (1985) The role of calcium in genetic hypertension. Hypertension 7: 657–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosenthal FD, Roy S (1972) Hypertension and hyperparathyroidism. Br Med J 4:396–397Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hulter HN, Melby JC, Peterson JC, Cooke CR (1986) Chronic continuous PTH infusion results in hypertension in normal subjects. J Clin Hypertens 4: 360–370Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Borle AB, Uchikawa T (1978) Effects of parathyroid hormone on the distribution and transport of calcium of cultured kidney cells. Endocrinology 102: 1725–1732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marcus C, Orner FB (1980) Parathyroid hormone as a calcium ionophore in bone cells: tests of specificity. Calcif Tissue Int 5: 159Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hruska KA, Goligorsky M, Scolbe J, Tsutsumi M, Westbrook S, Moskowitz D (1986) Effects of parathyroid hormone on cytosolic calcium in renal proximal tubular primary cultures. Am J Physiol 251: F188 - F198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dolson GM, Hise MK, Weinman ED (1985) Relationship among parathyroid hormone, cAMP and calcium on proximal tubule sodium transport. Am J Physiol 249: F409 - F416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nickols GA, Netz MA, Cline WH (1986) Endothelium-independent linkage of parathyroid hormone receptors of rat vascular tissue with increased adenosine 3’-5’monophosphate and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Endocrinology 119: 349–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dowe JP, Joshua IG (1987) In vivo arteriolar dilation in response to parathyroid hormone fragments. Peptides 8: 443–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shoback DM, Thatcher J, Leombruno R, Brown EM (1984) Relationship between parathyroid hormone secretion and cytosolic calcium concentration in dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 3113–3117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Larsson R, Wallfelt C, Abrahamsson H, Gylfe E, Ljunghall S, Rastad J, Rorsman P, Wide L, Akerström G (1984) Defective regulation of the cytosolic Ca-+ activity in parathyroid cells from patients with hyperparathyroidism. Biosci Rep 4: 909–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gennari C, Nami R, Bianchini C, Aversa AM (1985) Blood pressure effects of acute hypercalcemia in normal subjects and thyroparathyroidectomized patients. Miner Electrolyte Metab 11: 369–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zawada ET Jr, Johansson M, McClung D, TreWee J, MacKenzie T (1987) Systemic and renal hemodynamic consequences of manipulation of serum calcium and/or parathyroid hormone in the intact conscious mongrel dog. J Am Coll Nutr 6: 131–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Franco-Cereceda A, Gennari C, Nami R, Agnusdei D, Pernow J, Lundberg JM, Fischer AJ (1987) Cardiovascular effects of calcitonin gene-related peptides I and II in man. Circ Res 60: 393–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Struthers AD, Brown MJ, MacDonald DWR, Beacham JL, Stevenson JC, Morris HR, Maclntyre I (1986) Human calcitonin gene-related pepide: a potent endogenous vasodilator in man. Clin Sci 70: 389–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Singer P, Gödicke W, Voigt S, Hajdu I, Weiss M (1985) Postprandial hyperinsulinemia in patients with mild essential hhpertension. Hypertension 7: 182–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ladenson JH, Shyong JC (1977) Influence of fatty acids on the binding of calcium to human serum albumin. Clin Chim Acta 75: 293–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wortsmann J, Traycoff RB (1980) Biological activity of protein-bound calcium in serum. Am J Physiol 238 (1): E104 - E107Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zaloga GP, Willey S, Tomasic P, Chernow B (1987) Free fatty acids alter calcium binding: a cause for misinterpretation of serum calcium values and hypocalcemia in critical illness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64: 1010–1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Deacon SP (1978) The effects of atenolol and propranolol upon lipolysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 5: 123–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Day JL, Metcalfe J, Simpson CN (1982) Adrenergic mechanisms in control of plasma lipid concentrations. Br Med J 284: 1145–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Norberg K-A, Persson B, Granberg P-O (1975) Adrenergic innervation of the human parathyroid gland. Acta Chir Scand 141: 319–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brown EM, Hurwitz S, Aurbach GD (1977) Beta-adrenergic stimulation of cyclic AMP content and parathyroid hormone release from isolated parathyroid cells. Endocrinology 100: 1696–1702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hanley DA, Taktsuki K, Birnbaumer ME, Schneider AB, Sherwood LM (1980) In vitro perfusion for the study of parathyroid hormone secretion: effects of extra-cellular calcium concentration and ß-adrenergic regulation on bovine parathyroid hormone secretion in vitro. Calcif Tissue Int 32: 19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fischer JA, Blum JW, Binswanger U (1973) Acute parathyroid hormone response to epinephrine in vivo. J Clin Invest 52: 2434–2440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mayer GP, Hust JG, Barto JA, Keaton JA, Moore MP (1979) Effect of epinephrine on parathyroid hormone secretion in calves. Endocrinology 104: 1181–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kukreja SC, Williams GA, Vora NM, Hargis GK (1981) Normal responsiveness of serum parathyroid hormone to ß-adrenergic blockade in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Horm Metab Res 13: 233–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Farrington K, Hamzeh J, Varghese Z, Moorhead JF (1980) Effects of oral propranolol on parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure. Br Med J 281: 1320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Coevoet B, Desplan C, Sebert JL, Makdassi R, Andrejak M, Gheerbrant JD, Tolani M, Calmette C, Moukthar MS, Fournier A (1980) Effect of propranolol and metoprolol on parathyroid hormone and calcitonin secretion in uraemic patients. Br Med J 280: 1344–1346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McCarron DA, Muther RS, Plant SB, Krutzik S (1982) Ionized calcium and the in vivo response of normal and hyperplastic parathyroid glands to ß-adrenergic agents. Nephron 32: 149–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ljunghall S, Rudberg C, Akerström G, Wide L (1982) Effects of ß-adrenergic blockade on serum parathyroid hormone in normal subjects and patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Acta Med Scand 211: 27–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Epstein S, Heath III H, Bell NH (1983) Lack of influence of isoproterenol, propranolol, and dopamine on immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in normal man. Calci Tissue Int 35: 32–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Andersen T, McNair P, Fogh-Andersen N, Nielsen IT, Hyldstrup L, Transböl I (1986) Increased parathyroid hormone as a consequence of changed complex binding of plasma calcium in morbid obesity. Metabolism 35: 147–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Modan M, Halkin H, Almog S, Lusky A, Eshkol A, Shefi M, Shitrit A, Fuchs Z (1985) Hyperinsulinemia–a link between hypertension, obesity and glucose intolerance. J Clin Invest 75: 809–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C (1990) Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of primary hypertension independently of obesity. Metabolism 39: 167–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    DeFronzo RA, Cooke CR, Andres R, Faloona GR, Davis PJ (1975) The effect on insulin on renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate in man. J Clin Invest 55: 845–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Muldowney FP, Freaney R, Moloney MF (1982) Importance of dietary sodium in the hypercalciuria syndrome. Kidney Int 22: 292–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    deWardener HE (1978) The control of sodium excretion. Am J Physiol 235: F163 - F173Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Blaustein MP, Hamlyn JM (1984) Sodium transport inhibition, cell calcium and hypertension. Am J Med 77: 45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin • Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Hvarfner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity HospitalUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations