Diagnostic value of urinary enzyme determination in renal transplantation
The measurement of enzyme activity in urine provides a sensitive assessment for renal tubular cell damage. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical value of the determination of tubular brush-border-associated enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP), of patients with normal graft function (NOR, n = 20), with acute tubular necrosis (ATN, n = 11), with an acute rejection episode (ARE, n = 17) after transplantation, and of healthy persons (n =20). The second urine of the morning was collected daily during the patients’ stay in hospital. The enzyme activities were measured at 25 °C and were expressed as U/mmol creatinine. The enzymuria in NOR is higher than in healthy controls, but is still in the normal range. By 5 days after transplantation the initial increased excretion declines as the graft function improves. Elevated enzymuria (DPP 0.69 ± 0.56, AP 3.06 ± 3.24, GGT 4.16 ± 4.13, and LAP 1.39 ± 1.27) was observed during the rejection episodes. Two days before clinical diagnosis of rejection, the release of DPP-IV and GGT increases to double, and the AP and LAP increases to 3 times the value on the fourth day before rejection. Successful treatment of rejection coincided with a quick return by the third day of the rejection period to the previous enzyme distribution. In ATN no decrease of enzymuria occurs and the excretion is much higher than in ARE. Our method with the every day monitoring of kidney graft function offers the possibility for the early diagnosis of acute rejection.
Key wordsEnzymuria Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV Alkaline phosphatase Gamma-glutamyl transferase Leucine aminopeptidase
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