Dermatology pp 686-709 | Cite as

Disorders of Melanin Pigmentation

  • Otto Braun-Falco
  • Gerd Plewig
  • Helmut H. Wolff
  • Richard K. Winkelmann


Among the four normal skin pigments oxyhemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, melanin, and carotene, melanin is the most important. The skin can protect itself effectively from the consequences of ultraviolet irradiation by melanin formation. If the capacity for melanin formation is absent, as in patients with albinism, the affected person is very handicapped, particularly in tropical climates with much sunlight. Sunburn reactions are acute, but more important consequences include chronic sun damage of the skin with telangiectases, spotty hyper- and hypopigmentation, actinic elastosis, actinic keratoses, and malignant epithelial skin tumors. These events appear early in patients with absent or reduced capacity for melanin formation, but practically never occur in blacks.


Freckles Pigment spot polyposis (Klostermann1956) periorificial lentiginosis Axillary freckling Crowes sign Albright-McCune-Sternberg syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome Melasma Except for the hyperpigmentation None Poikilodermie réticulée pigmentaire du vis-age et du cou(Civatte 1923) Peribuccal pigmentation(Brocq) erythrosis pigmentata faciei érythroose pigmentée péri-buccale Brocq Lentiginosis syndrome Senile spots age spots Senile lentigo Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome Hypo melanosis Ito(1951) Ashy dermatosis Los cenicientos(the ash-colored ones) Melanosis lenticularis generalisata (Got-tron 1942) Pigmentatio maculosa acquisita (Sako 1942) Small spotted pigment dermatosis (Rupec and Vakilzadeh 1971) Dyschromatiosis universalis hereditaria Diffuse neurocutaneous melanosis Fölling’s disease Oligophrenia phenyl-pyruvica Phenylpyruvic acid oligophrenia Congenital white spots Albnismus partia-lis Partial albinism Albinsim-deafness syndrome This is a disease combining piebaldism and deaf-ness White spot disease Sutton nevus Leukoderma centrifugum acquisitum Perineval vitiligo Halo melanocytic ne-ves Leuckoderma lenticulare dissminatum (Arguelles-Casslas and Gonzalez 1969) 


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Bibliography: Disorders of Melanin Pigmentation


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Depigmentation Vitiligo

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Idiopathic Guttate Hypomelanosis

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Chemical Depigmentation

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otto Braun-Falco
    • 1
  • Gerd Plewig
    • 2
  • Helmut H. Wolff
    • 3
  • Richard K. Winkelmann
    • 4
  1. 1.Dermatologische Klinik und PoliklinikLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMünchen 2Federal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Hautklinik der Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfFederal Republic of Germany
  3. 3.Klinik für Dermatologie und VenerologieMedizinischen Universität zu LübeckLübeck 1Federal Republic of Germany
  4. 4.Dermatology — Dermatopathology, Mayo ClinicMayo Medical SchoolRochesterUSA

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