Was ist Cybermobbing?

  • Lara Schenk


„Megan war 13 und über beide Ohren in eine Internet-Bekanntschaft verliebt. Als ihr virtueller Freund sie plötzlich verschmähte, erhängte sich das Mädchen. Doch der virtuelle Freund war in Wahrheit eine ehemalige Freundin, die sich rächen wollte.“ (Patalong 2007) – Es sind Fälle wie diese, die dazu beitragen, dass das Thema Cybermobbing Einzug in das öffentliche Bewusstsein findet.


  1. Ahmed, E., & Braithwaite, V. (2004). Bullying and victimization: Cause of concern for both families and schools. Social Psychology of Education, 7(1), 35–54. Scholar
  2. Ang, R. P., Tan, K. A., & Talib Mansor, A. (2011). Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 2619–2634. Scholar
  3. Aricak, T., Siyahhan, S., Uzunhasanoglu, A., Saribeyoglu, S., Ciplak, S., Yilmaz, N., & Memmedov, C. (2019). Cyberbullying among Turkish adolescents. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 253–261. Scholar
  4. Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Protective factors as moderators of risk factors in adolescence bullying. Social Psychology of Education, 8(3), 263–284. Scholar
  5. Barlinska, J., Szuster, A., & Winiewski, M. (2013). Cyberbullying among Adolescent Bystanders: Role of the communication medium, form of violence, and empathy. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 23, 37–51. Scholar
  6. Baruch, Y. (2005). Bullying on the net: Adverse behavior on email and its impact. Information & Management, 42(2), 361–371. Scholar
  7. Bauman, S., & Newman, M. L. (2013). Testing assumptions about cyberbullying: Perceived distress associated with acts of conventional and cyber bullying. Psychology of Violence, 3, 27–38. Scholar
  8. Bayraktar, F., Machackova, H., Dedkova, L., Cerna, A., & Sevcikova, A. (2015). Cyberbullying: The discriminant factors among cyberbullies, cybervictims, and cyberbully-victims in a Czech Adolescent Sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(18), 3192–3216. Scholar
  9. Beale, A. V., & Hall, K. R. (2007). Cyberbullying: What school administrators (and parents) can do. Clearing House, 18, 8–12. Scholar
  10. Beran, T., & Li, Q. (2007). The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. Journal of Student Wellbeing, 1, 15–33. Scholar
  11. Betts, L. R. (2016). Cyberbullying Approaches, Consequences and Interventions. Nottingham: Palgrave Studies in Cyberpsychology. Scholar
  12. Borgia, L. G., & Myers, J. J. (2010). Cyber safety and children’s literature: A good match for creating classroom communities. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 38, 29–34. Scholar
  13. Butler, D., Kift, S., & Campbell, M. (2009). Cyber bullying in schools and the law: Is there an effective means of addressing the power imbalance?. eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 16, 84–114. Zugegriffen: 6. Febr. 2019.Google Scholar
  14. Calvete, E., Orue, I., Estevez, A., Villardon, L., & Padilla, P. (2010). Cyberbullying in adolescents: Modalities of aggressors’ profile. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1128–1135. Scholar
  15. Campbell, M. A. (2011). School policy responses to the issue of cyber-bullying. Journal of Catholic School Studies, 83, 62–69.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, M. A., Slee, P. T., Spears, B., Butle, S., & Kift, S. (2013). Do cyberbullies suffer too? Cyberbullies’ perceptions of the harm they cause to others and their own mental health. School Psychology International, 34, 613–629. Scholar
  17. Card, N. A., & Little, T. D. (2006). Proactive and reactive aggression in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis of differential relations with psychosocial adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 466–480. Scholar
  18. Copeland, W. E., Wolke, D., Angold, A. A., & Costello, E. J. (2013). Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(4), 419–426. Scholar
  19. Corcoran, L., McGuckin, C., & Prentice, C. (2015). Cyberbullying or cyber aggression?: A review of existing definitions of cyber-based peer-to-peer aggression. Societies, 5, 245–255. Scholar
  20. Cowie, H. (2013). Cyberbullying and its impact on young people’s emotional health and well-being. The Psychiatrist, 37(5), 167–170. Scholar
  21. Cross, D., Lester, L., & Barnes, A. (2015). A longitudinal study of the social and emotional predictors and consequences of cyber and traditional bullying victimization. International Journal of Public Health, 60, 207–217. Scholar
  22. Crosslin, K., & Crosslin, M. (2014). Cyberbullying at a Texas University – A mixed methods approach to examining online aggression. Texas Public Health Journal, 66, 26–31. Zugegriffen: 6. Marz 2019.Google Scholar
  23. Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377–383. Scholar
  24. Dempsey, A. G., Sulkowski, M. L., Nichols, R., & Storch, E. A. (2009). Differences between peer victimization in cyber and physical settings and associated psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence. Psychology in the Schools, 46, 962–972. Scholar
  25. Dempsey, A. G., Sulkowski, M. L., Dempsey, J., & Storch, E. A. (2011). Has cyber technology produced a new group of peer aggressors? Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14, 297–302. Scholar
  26. DeSmet, A., Bastiaensens, S., van Cleemput, K., Poels, K., Vandebosch, H., & de Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2012). Mobilizing bystanders of cyberbullying: An exploratory study into behavioural determinants of defending the victim. Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine, 10, 58–63. Scholar
  27. Didden, R., Scholte, R. H. J., Korzilius, H. De, Moor, J. M. H., Vermeulen, A., O’Reilly, M., Lang, R., & Lancioni, G. E. (2009). Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12(3), 146–151. Scholar
  28. Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In N. Eisenberg (Hrsg.), Handbook of child psychology (Bd. 3, S. 719–788)., Social, emotional and personality development New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Fernandes, T., Sanyal, N., & Chada, S. (2015). Self-esteem and social interaction anxiety in cyberbullied adolescents. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 6(7), 648–655.Google Scholar
  30. Festl, R., Scharkow, M., & Quandt, T. (2013). Peer influence, internet use and cyberbullying: A comparison of different context effects among German adolescents. Journal of Children and Media, 7(4), 446–462. Scholar
  31. Garaigordobil, M., & Martinez-Valderrey, V. (2015). Effects of cyberprogram 2.0 on “face-to-face” bullying, cyberbullying, and empathy. Psicothema, 27, 45–51. Scholar
  32. Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2009). Traditional bullying and cyberbullying: Identification of risk groups for adjustment problems. Journal of Psychology, 217, 205–213. Scholar
  33. Greene, M. B. (2006). Bullying in Schools: A Plea for Measure of Human rights. Journal of Social Issues, 62(1), 63–79. Scholar
  34. Griffin, R. S., & Gross, A. M. (2004). Childhood Bullying: Current Empirical Findings and Future Directions for Research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9(4), 379–400. Scholar
  35. Grigg, D. W. (2010). Cyber-Aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20, 143–156. Scholar
  36. Guo, S. (2016). A Meta-analysis of the predictors of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Psychology in the Schools, 53(4), 432–453. Scholar
  37. Heirman, W., & Walrave, M. (2008). Assessing concerns and issues about the mediation of technology in cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2(2), Article 1. Zugegriffen: 6. Marz 2019.
  38. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29, 129–156. Scholar
  39. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks: Crown Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hoff, D. L., & Mitchell, S. N. (2009). Cyberbullying: causes, effects, and remedies. Journal of Educational Administration, 47, 652–665. Scholar
  41. Huang, Y. Y., & Chou, C. (2010). An analysis of multiple factors of cyberbullying among junior high school students in Taiwan. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1581–1590. Scholar
  42. Jacobs, N. C., Völling, T., Dehue, F., & Lechner, L. (2014). Online pestkoppenstoppen: Systematic and theory-based development of a web-based tailored intervention for adolescent cyberbullying victims to combat and prevent cyberbullying. BMC Public Health, 14, 396. Scholar
  43. Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. F. (2008). Extending the school grounds? Bullying experiences in cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496–505. Scholar
  44. Katzer, C., Fetchenhauer, D., & Belschak, F. (2009). Cyberbullying: Who are the victims?: A Comparison of victimization in Internet chatrooms and victimization in school. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods and Applications, 21(1), 25–36. Scholar
  45. Keith, S., & Martin, M. E. (2005). Cyber-bullying: Creating a culture of respect in a cyber world. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 13(4), 224–228.Google Scholar
  46. Kernaghan, D., & Elwood, J. (2013). All the (cyber) world’s a stage. Framing cyberbullying as a performance. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychological Research on Cyberspace, 7(1), Article 5.
  47. Kowalski, R. M., & Fedina, C. (2011). Cyber bullying ADHD and Asperger Syndrome populations. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 1201–1208. Scholar
  48. Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. (2008). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 22–30. Scholar
  49. Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. P., & Agatston, P. W. (2008). Cyber bullying. Bullying in the digital age. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., & Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 1073–1137. Scholar
  51. Kubiszewski, V., Fontaine, R., Potard, C., & Auzoult, L. (2015). Does cyberbullying overlap with school bullying when taking modality of involvement into account? Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 49–57. Scholar
  52. Lam, L. T., Cheng, Z., & Liu, X. (2013). Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 159–164. Scholar
  53. Landoll, R. R., La Greca, A. M., Lai, B. S., Chan, S. F., & Herge, W. M. (2015). Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 77–86. Scholar
  54. Langos, C. (2012). Cyberbullying: The challenge to define. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 15, 285–289. Scholar
  55. Law, D. M., Shapka, J. D., & Olson, B. F. (2010). To control or not control? Parenting behaviours and adolescent online aggression. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1651–1656. Scholar
  56. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal and Coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  57. Legate, N., Weinstein, N., & Przybylski, A. K. (2018). Parenting Strategies and Adolescents’ Cyberbullying Behaviors: Evidence from a Preregistered Study of Parent-Child Dyads. Journal of Youth and Adolescence., [Epub ahead of print].
  58. Li, Q. (2006). Cyberbullying in schools: A research of gender differences. School Psychology International, 27, 157–170. Scholar
  59. Li, Q. (2007). New Bottle but Old Wine: A Research of Cyberbullying in Schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(4), 1777–1791. Scholar
  60. Li, Q. (2008). A Cross-cultural Comparison of Adolescents’ Experience Related to Cyberbullying. Educational Research, 50(3), 223–234. Scholar
  61. Lodge, J., & Frydenberg, E. (2007). Cyber-bullying in Australian schools: profiles of adolescent coping and insights. Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 24, 45–58. Scholar
  62. Long, C. (2008) Silencing cyberbullies. NEA Today, May, S. 28–29.Google Scholar
  63. Machmutow, K., Perren, S., Sticca, F., & Alsaker, F. D. (2012). Peer victimization and depressive symptoms: Can specific coping strategies buffer the negative impact of cybervictimization? Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 17(3–4), 403–420. Scholar
  64. Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., Freiburger, T. L., & Ricketts, M. L. (2014). Exploration of the cyberbullying victim/offender overlap by sex. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 538–548. Scholar
  65. Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., Palladino, B. C., Scheithauer, H., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Frisen, A., Berne, S., Luik, P., Naruskov, K., Ortega, R., et al. (2013). Definitions of cyberbullying. In P. K. Smith & G. Steffgen (Hrsg.), Cyberbullying through the New Media: Findings from An International Network (S. 23–36). Oxfordshire: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  66. Mishna, F., Saini, M., & Solomon, S. (2009). Ongoing and online: Children and youth’s perceptions of cyber bullying. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(12), 1222–1228. Scholar
  67. Mishna, F., Cook, C., Gadalla, T., Daciuk, J., & Solomon, S. (2010). Cyber bullying behaviors among middle and high school students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(3), 362–374. Scholar
  68. Mishna, F., Koury-Kassabri, M., Dadalla, T., & Daciuk, J. (2012). Risk factors for involvement in cyber bullying: Victims, bullies and bully-victims. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(1), 63–70. Scholar
  69. O’Moore, M., & Minton, S. J. (2009). Cyber-bullying: The Irish experience. In S. Tawse & C. Quin (Hrsg.), Handbook of Aggressive Behaviour Research (S. 269–292). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  70. Olweus, D. (1999). Sweden. In P. K. Smith, Y. Morita, J. Junger-Tas, D. Olweus, R. Catalano, & P. Slee (Hrsg.), The nature of school bullying: A cross-national perspective (S. 7–27). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Olweus, D. (2013). School bullying: Development and some important challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 751–780. Scholar
  72. Ortega, R., Calmaestra, J., & Mora-Merchan, J. (2008) Cyberbullying. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 8, 183–192. Zugegriffen: 6. Marz 2019.
  73. Patalong, F. (2007). Tod eines Teenagers. Zugegriffen: 16. Jan. 2019.
  74. Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies Move Beyond the Schoolyard. A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 148–169.
  75. Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and self-esteem. Journal of School Health, 80, 614–621. Scholar
  76. Perren, S., Dooley, J., Shaw, T., & Cross, D. (2010). Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 4, 1–10. Scholar
  77. Pfetsch, J., Mohr, S. & Ittel, A. (2014). Prävention und Intervention von Online-Aggressionen: Wie wirksam sind Maßnahmen, die sich spezifisch gegen Cybermobbing richten? in: Porsch, T. & Pieschl, S. (Hrsg.), Neue Medien und deren Schatten. Mediennutzung, Medienwirkung und Medienkompetenz. Hogrefe, Göttingen.Google Scholar
  78. Pieschl, S., Kuhlmann, C., & Prosch, T. (2015). Beware of publicity! Perceived distress of negative cyber incidents and implications for defining cyberbullying. Journal of School Violence, 14, 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Price, M., & Dalgleish, J. (2010). Cyberbullying: Experiences, impacts and coping strategies as described by Australian young people. Youth Studies Australia, 29(2), 51–59. Scholar
  80. Price, M., Chin, M. A., Higa-McMillan, C., Kim, S., & Frueh, B. C. (2013). Prevalence and internalizing problems of ethnoracially diverse victims of traditional and cyber bullying. School Mental Health, 5, 183–191. Scholar
  81. Przybylski, A. K., & Bowes, L. (2017). Cyberbullying and adolescent well-being in England: A population-based cross-sectional study. The Lacent Child & Adolescent Health, 1(1), 19–26. Scholar
  82. Pyzalski, J. (2012). From cyberbullying to electronic aggression: Typology of the phenomenon. Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 17, 305–317. Scholar
  83. Raskauskas, J., & Stoltz, A. D. (2007). Involvement in traditional and electronic bullying among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 43, 564–575. Scholar
  84. Rivituso, J. (2014). Cyberbullying victimization among college students: An interpretive phenomenological analysis. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25, 71–5. Zugegriffen: 6. Marz 2019.
  85. Robinson, E. (2013) Parental involvement in preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Family Matters, 92, 68–76.,%20E.%20(2013).pdf. Zugegriffen: 6. Marz 2019.
  86. Rosen, J. (2012). The right to be forgotten. Stanford Law Review Online, 64, 88–92. Zugegriffen: 6. Marz 2019.
  87. Salmivalli, C. (2010). Bullying and the peer group: A review. Journal of Aggression and Violent Behavior, 115, 112–120. Scholar
  88. Sbarbaro, V., & Smith, T. M. E. (2011). An exploratory study of bullying and cyberbullying behaviors among economically disadvantaged middle school students. American Journal of Health Studies, 26(3), 139. Zugegriffen: 6. Marz 2019.
  89. Schenk, A. M., & Fremouw, W. J. (2012). Prevalence, psychological impact, and coping of cyberbully victims among college students. Journal of School Violence, 11, 21–37. Scholar
  90. Schneider, S. K., O’Donnell, L., Stueve, A., & Coulter, R. W. S. (2012). Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: A regional consensus of high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 102(1), 171–177. Scholar
  91. Selkie, E. M., Kota, R., Chan, Y. F., & Moreno, M. (2015). Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students. A multisite study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18, 79–86. Scholar
  92. Simmons, K. D., & Bynum, Y. P. (2014). Cyberbullying: Six things administrators can do. Education, 134, 452–456.Google Scholar
  93. Sleglova, V., & Cerna, A. (2011). Cyberbullying in Adolescent Victims: Perception and Coping. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychological Research on Cyberspace, 5(2): Article 4. Zugegriffen: 9. Jan. 2019.
  94. Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 147–154. Scholar
  95. Smith, P. K. (2004). Bullying: Recent developments. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 9(3), 98–103. Scholar
  96. Smith, P. K., & Steffgen, G. (2013). Cyberbullying through the new media: Findings from an international network. New York: Psychology Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M. & Tippett, N. (2006). An investigation into cyberbullying, its forms, awareness and impact, and the relationship between age and gender in cyberbullying. Research Brief No. R BX03-06. DfES, London.
  98. Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 376–385. Scholar
  99. Sourander, A., Klomek, A. B., Ikonen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., Ristkari, T., & Helenius, H. (2010). Psychological risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: a population-based study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 720–728. Scholar
  100. Steffgen, G., Pfetsch, J., König, A., & Melzer, A. (2011). Are cyber bullies less empathic? Adolescents’ cyber bullying behavior and empathic responsiveness. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(11), 643–648. Scholar
  101. Suler, J. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. Cyberpsychology and Behaviour, 7, 321–326. Scholar
  102. Thornberg, R. (2007). A classmate in distress: Schoolchildren as bystanders and their reasons for how they act. Social Psychology of Education, 10, 5–28. Scholar
  103. Tokunaga, R. S. (2010). Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 277–287. Scholar
  104. Vandebosch & Van Cleemput. (2008). Defining cyberbullying: A qualitative research into the perception of youngsers. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(4), 499–503. Scholar
  105. Vandebosch & Van Cleemput. (2009). Cyberbullying among youngsters: Profiles of bullies and victims. New Media & Society, 11, 1349–1371. Scholar
  106. Vannucci, M., Nocentini, A., Mazzoni, G., & Menesini, E. (2012). Recalling unrepresented hostile words: False memories predictors of traditional and cyberbullying. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 182–194. Scholar
  107. Varjas, K., Henrich, C. C., & Meyers, J. (2009). Urban middle school student’s perceptions of bullying, cyberbullying and school safety. Journal of School Violence, 8, 159–176. Scholar
  108. Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). The overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56, 483–488. Scholar
  109. Wachs, S., Wolf, K. D., & Pan, C. C. (2010). Cybergrooming: Risk factors, coping strategies and associations with cyberbullying. Psicothema, 24, 628–633.Google Scholar
  110. Walrave, M., & Heirman, W. (2011). Cyberbullying: Predicting victimisation and perpetration. Children and Society, 25, 59–72. Scholar
  111. Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Nansel, T. R. (2009). School-bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal, relational and cyber. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 368–375. Scholar
  112. Wang, J., Nansel, T. R., & Iannotti, R. J. (2011). Cyber and traditional bullying: Differential association with depression. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48, 415–417. Scholar
  113. Weitzmann, J. H. (2017). Cyber-Mobbing und was man dagegen tun kann (I): Erscheinungsformen, Gründe und Auslöser. Zugegriffen: 16. Jan. 2019.
  114. West, D. (2015). An investigation into the prevalence of cyberbullying among students aged 16–19 in post-compulsory education. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 20, 96–112. Scholar
  115. Willard, N. (2006). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social cruelty, threats, and distress. Champaign: Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use.Google Scholar
  116. Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), 14–21. Scholar
  117. Wolak, J., Mitchell, K., & Finkelhor, D. (2007). Does online harassment constitute bullying? An exploration of online harassment by known peers and online-only contacts. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 51–58. Scholar
  118. Xiao, B. S., & Wong, Y. M. (2013). Cyber-bullying among university students: An empirical investigation from the social cognitive perspective. International Journal of Business and Information, 8, 34–69.Google Scholar
  119. Ybarra, M. L. (2004). Linkages between Depressive Symptomatology and Internet Harassment among Young Regular Internet Users. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 7(2), 247–257. Scholar
  120. Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004a). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets: A comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1308–1316. Scholar
  121. Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004b). Youth engaging in online harassment: Associations with caregiver-child relationships, Internet use, and personal characteristics. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 319–336. Scholar
  122. Ybarra, M. L., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2007). Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(6), 42–50. Scholar
  123. Zych, I., Ortega-Ruiz, R., & Marin-Lopez, I. (2016). Cyberbullying: A systematic review of research, its prevalence and assessment issues in Spanish studies. Psicologia Educativa, 22, 5–18. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lara Schenk
    • 1
  1. 1.Fakultät für Sprachwissenschaften und Literatur, Geisteswissenschaften, Kunst und ErziehungswissenschaftenUniversität LuxemburgEsch-sur-AlzetteLuxemburg

Personalised recommendations