Advertisement

Geschlechterungleichheit und Regimewechsel: Erwachsenenbildung und Arbeitsmarktchancen in Russland vor und nach dem Ende der Sowjetunion / Gender inequality and the regime change. Adult education and labor market rewards in the Soviet and post-Soviet Russia

  • Yuliya KosyakovaEmail author
Chapter
  • 66 Downloads
Part of the Edition ZfE book series (EZFE, volume 7)

Zusammenfassung

Diese Arbeit untersucht Geschlechterunterschiede in formaler Erwachsenenbildung, die Arbeitsmarktanpassungen nach dramatischen institutionellen Veränderungen infolge des Übergangs von Russland in eine liberalisierte Marktwirtschaft fördern soll. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Frauen während des Staatssozialismus weniger Chancen als Männer hatten, an Erwachsenenbildung teilzunehmen. Im postsozialistischen Russland kehrten sich diese Geschlechterunterschiede um. Diese Veränderung war allerdings nicht das Ergebnis einer Verbesserung der Chancen von Frauen, sondern das Ergebnis einer Verschlechterung der Chancen von Männern. Die Erträge der Erwachsenenbildung gemessen an der (Wieder-) Aufnahme von Arbeit variieren nach Geschlecht und über die Zeit. Während des Sozialismus zahlte sich die Erwachsenenbildung stärker für Männer als für Frauen aus. Mit dem Ende der Sowjetunion sanken diese Erträge für Männer, für Frauen ergab sich eine marginale (allerdings nicht statistisch signifikante) Verbesserung, sodass sich die Erträge beider Geschlechter anglichen. Vor dem Hintergrund der neuentstandenen Arbeitsmarktnachteile für Frauen scheint die Erwachsenenbildung zwar ein effizientes Mittel zur Verbesserung ihrer Arbeitsmarktchancen, jedoch nicht zur Kompensation ihrer relativen Arbeitsmarktverluste nach dem Ende der Sowjetunion.

Schlüsselbegriffe

Erwachsenenbildung Geschlechterungleichheit Lebensverlauf Regimewechsel Russland 

Abstract

This paper studies gender differences in formal adult education – an instrument argued to be essential for labor market adaptation in response to dramatic institutional changes in Russia’s transition to a liberalized market economy. Results suggest that women faced disadvantages in adult-educational opportunities under state socialism, whereas this has been reversed in the post-Soviet Russia. This, however, was not an outcome of the improved opportunities for women but of worsened opportunities for men. Moreover, returns to adult education in terms of (re-)employment opportunities vary by gender and over time. Adult education was more effective for men than for women under state socialism. With the Soviet Union collapse, men experienced an enormous drop in adult-educational returns, whereas there was marginal (albeit not statistically significant) improvement for women. As a result, men’s returns to adult education went down to the females’ level. Finally, given the emerged female disadvantage in (re-)employment opportunities, adult education seems to be an efficient tool to improve overall labor market chances of women but not to compensate for their relative labor market losses after the Soviet Union collapse.

Keywords

Adult education Gender inequality Life course Regime change Russia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Allison, P. D. (2009). Fixed Effects Models for Events History Data. In Paul D. Allison (Eds.), Fixed Effects Regression Models (pp. 70–87). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Bartel, A. P., & Sicherman, N. (1998). Technological Change and the Skill Acquisition of Young Workers. Journal of Labor Economics, 16(4), 718–755.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, G. S. (1964). Human Capital. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, G. S. (1985). Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor. Journal of Labor Economics, 3(1), 33–58.Google Scholar
  5. Berger, M. C., Earle, J. S., & Sabirianova, K. Z. (2001). Worker Training in a Restructuring Economy: Evidence from the Russian Transition (IZA Discussion Paper 361).Google Scholar
  6. Bianchi, S. M., Milkie, M. A., Sayer, L. C., & Robinson, J. P. (2000). Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household. Social Forces, 79(1), 191–228.Google Scholar
  7. Bielby, W. T., & Baron, J. N. (1986). Men and Women at Work: Sex Segregation and Statistical Discrimination. American Journal of Sociology, 91(4), 759–799.Google Scholar
  8. Bills, D. B. (2005). Participation in Work-Related Education: Variations in Skill Enhancement among Workers, Employers, and Occupational Closure. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 23(5), 67–102.Google Scholar
  9. Blanden, J., Buscha, F., Sturgis, P., & Urwin, P. (2012). Measuring the earnings returns to lifelong learning in the UK. Economics of Education Review, 31(4), 501–514.Google Scholar
  10. Blossfeld, H.-P., Golsch, K., & Rohwer, G. (2007). Event History Analysis With Stata. New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  11. Blossfeld, H.-P., & Hofmeister, H. (Eds.). (2006). Globalization, Uncertainty and Women’s Careers. An International Comparison. Cheltenham (UK): Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  12. Blossfeld, H.-P., Kilpi-Jakonen, E., Vono de Vilhena, D., & Buchholz, S. (Eds.). (2014). Adult Learning in Modern Societies: An International Comparison from a Life-Course Perspective. eduLIFE Lifelong Learning Series. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  13. Borghans, L., Golsteyn, B. H. H., Heckman, J. J., & Meijers, H. (2009). Gender Differences in Risk Aversion and Ambiguity Aversion (No. 14713). Cambridge.Google Scholar
  14. Brainerd, E. (1998). Winners and losers in Russia’s economic transition. American Economic Review, 88(5), 1094–1116.Google Scholar
  15. Brainerd, E. (2000). Women in transition: changes in gender wage differentials in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 54(1), 138–162.Google Scholar
  16. Brüderl, J. (2015). Script and Stata Do-Files on Applied Panel Data Analysis. http://www.ls3.soziologie.uni-muenchen.de/teach-materials/index.html.
  17. Bühler, C., Magun, V., Kozyreva, P. M., Kosolapov, M. S., Sinyavskaya, O., Shkolnikov, V., Kulu, H., Vikat, A., & Houle, R. (2007). The Education and Employment Survey for Russia: survey instruments. Rostock: Max Planck Institute for demographic Research.Google Scholar
  18. CEDAW. (1999). Fifth periodic report of States parties: Russia. United Nations: Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.Google Scholar
  19. Dieckhoff, M., & Steiber, N. (2011). A Re-Assessment of Common Theoretical Approaches to Explain Gender Differences in Continuing Training Participation. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49(S1), 135–157.Google Scholar
  20. Dilli, S., Rijpma, A., & Carmichael, S. G. (2014). Achieving Gender Equality: Development versus Historical Legacies. CESifo Economic Studies, 61(September 2014), 301–334.Google Scholar
  21. Fenger, M. H. J. (2007). Welfare regimes in Central and Eastern Europe: Incorporating post-communist countries in a welfare regime typology. Contemporary Issues and Ideas in Social Sciences, 3(2), 1–30.Google Scholar
  22. Gerber, T. P. (2002). Structural Change and Post-Socialist Stratification: Labor Market Transitions in Contemporary Russia. American Sociological Review, 67(5), 629–659.Google Scholar
  23. Gerber, T. P. (2007). Russia: stratification in postsecondary education since the Second World War. In Y. Shavit, R. Arum, & Gamoran, A. (Eds.), Stratification in higher education: a comparative study (pp. 294–320). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gerber, T. P., & Hout, M. (1995). Educational Stratification in Russia During the Soviet Period. American Journal of Sociology, 101(3), 611–660.Google Scholar
  25. Gerber, T. P., & Hout, M. (1998). More shock than therapy: market transition, employment, and income in Russia, 1991–1995. American Journal of Sociology, 104(1), 1–50.Google Scholar
  26. Gerber, T. P., & Mayorova, O. (2006). Dynamic gender differences in a post-socialist labor market: Russia, 1991-1997. Social Forces, 84(4), 2047–2075.Google Scholar
  27. Gimpelson, V., & Lippoldt, D. (2001). The Russian Labour Market: Between Transition and Turmoil. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. GOSKOMSTAT. (2001). Российский статистический ежегодник 2001 (Статистический сборник). [Russian Statistical Yearbook 2001 (Statistical Yearbook)]. Moscow.Google Scholar
  29. GOSKOMSTAT USSR. (1981). Народное хозяйство СССР в 1980 г. Статистический ежегодник. [National Economy of the USSR in 1980. Statistical yearbook]. Moscow: Finansi is statistika.Google Scholar
  30. Gregory, P. R., & Collier, I. L. (1988). Unemployment in the Soviet Union: Evidence from the Soviet Interview Project. The American Economic Review, 78(4), 613–632.Google Scholar
  31. Hakim, C. (2006). Women, careers, and work-life preferences. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 34(3), 279–294.Google Scholar
  32. Hällsten, M. (2011). Late Entry in Swedish Tertiary Education: Can the Opportunity of Lifelong Learning Promote Equality Over the Life Course? British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49(3), 537–559.Google Scholar
  33. Hofäcker, D., Stoilova, R., & Riebling, J. R. (2011). The gendered division of paid and unpaid work in different institutional regimes: comparing West Germany, East Germany and Bulgaria. European Sociological Review, 29(2), 192–209.Google Scholar
  34. IISP. (2014). Parents and Children, Men and Women in Family and Society. Project within the Pan-European “Generations and Gender Program/Survey.” http://www.socpol.ru/eng/research_projects/proj12.shtml.
  35. Katz, K. (2001). Gender, Work and Wages in the Soviet Union. A Legacy of Discrimination. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  36. Kilpi-Jakonen, E., Vono de Vilhena, D., Kosyakova, Y., Stenberg, A., Blossfeld, H.-P., De Vilhena, D. V., Kosyakova, Y., Stenberg, A., & Blossfeld, H.-P. (2012). The Impact of Formal Adult Education on the Likelihood of Being Employed: a Comparative Overview. Studies of Transition States and Societies, 4(1), 48–68.Google Scholar
  37. Klimova, A. (2012). Gender differences in determinants of occupational choice in Russia. International Journal of Social Economics, 39(9), 648–670.Google Scholar
  38. Kosyakova, Y. (2016). The Regime Change and Social Inequality. Educational and Job Careers in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia. European University Institute.Google Scholar
  39. Kosyakova, Y. (2018). Cumulation or compensation? Returns to adult education and social inequalities in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia. European Societies, 20(1), 65–88.Google Scholar
  40. Kosyakova, Y., Kurakin, D., & Blossfeld, H.-P. (2015). Horizontal and vertical gender segregation in russia – changes upon labour market entry before and after the collapse of the Soviet regime. European Sociological Review, 31(5), 573–590.Google Scholar
  41. Kosyakova, Y., Saar, E., & Dämmrich, J. (2017). Institutional Change and Gender Inequalities at Labour Market Entry: A Comparison of Estonia , Russia , and East and West Germany. Studies of Transition States and Societies, 9(2), 17–40.Google Scholar
  42. Kosyakova, Y., & Yastrebov, G. (2017). Early education and care in post-Soviet Russia: Social policy and inequality patterns. In H.-P. Blossfeld, N. Kulic, J. Skopek, & M. Triventi (Eds.), Childcare, Early Education and Social Inequality (pp. 49–66). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  43. Kosyakova, Y., & Gerber T. P. (2019). Adult Education, Stratification, and Regime Change: Upgrading and Sidestepping in Russia, 1965-2005. Sociology of Education, 92(2), 124–149.Google Scholar
  44. Lapidus, G. W. (1993). Gender and Restructuring: The Impact of Perestroika and its Aftermath on Soviet Women. In V. M. Moghadam (Ed.), Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional Economies (Vol. D, pp. 137–161). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  45. Linz, S. J. (1996). Gender Differences in the Russian Labor Market. Journal of Economic Issues, 30(1), 161–185.Google Scholar
  46. McAuley, A. (1981). Women’s work and wages in the Soviet Union. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  47. Nee, V. (1989). A Theory of Market Transition: From Redistribution to Markets in State Socialism. American Sociological Review, 54(5), 663–681.Google Scholar
  48. Nee, V., & Matthews, R. (1996). Market Transition and Societal Transformation in Reforming State Socialism. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(1996), 401–435.Google Scholar
  49. Pascall, G., & Manning, N. (2000). Gender and social policy: comparing welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Journal of European Social Policy, 10(3), 240–266.Google Scholar
  50. Polachek, S. W. (1981). Occupational self-selection: A human capital approach to sex differences in occupational structure. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 63(1), 60–69.Google Scholar
  51. Saar, E., Ure, O. B., & Holford, J. (Eds.). (2013). Lifelong Learning in Europe; National Patterns and Challenges. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  52. Sabirianova, K. Z. (2002). The Great Human Capital Reallocation: An Empirical Analysis of Occupational Mobility in Transitional Russia. Journal of Comparative Economics, 30(1), 191–217.Google Scholar
  53. Spence, M. (1973). Job Market Signaling. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(3), 355–374.Google Scholar
  54. Täht, K., Saar, E., & Unt, M. (2009). Changing mobility regime in Estonia? Young people’s labor market entry and early careers since the 1980s. In H.-P. Blossfeld, K. Kurz, S. Buchholz, & E. Bukodi (Eds.), Young Workers, Globalization and the Labor Market: Comparing Early Working Life in Eleven Countries. (pp. 313–334). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  55. Teplova, T. (2007). Welfare state transformation, childcare, and women’s work in Russia. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 14(3), 284–322.Google Scholar
  56. The World Bank. (2002). Transition. The First Ten Years. Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Library. Washington D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.Google Scholar
  57. United Nations. (2005). Generations & Gender Programme: Survey Instruments. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  58. van der Lippe, T., & Fodor, É. (1998). Changes in gender inequality in six Eastern European countries. Acta Sociologica, 41(2), 131–149.Google Scholar
  59. Volkov, V. (2002). Violent Entrepreneurs: The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Walder, A. G. (1995). Career Mobility and the Communist Political Order. American Sociological Review, 60(3), 309–328.Google Scholar
  61. Walder, A. G. (2003). Elite Opportunity in Transitional Economies. American Sociological Review, 68(6), 899–916.Google Scholar
  62. Zajda, J. (2003). Lifelong Learning and Adult education: Russia meets the West. International Review of Education, 49(1–2), 111–132.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Employment Research, Migration and International Labour StudiesNürenbergDeutschland

Personalised recommendations