Advertisement

Adult Education and Lifelong Learning

  • Jutta Allmendinger
  • Corinna Kleinert
  • Reinhard PollakEmail author
  • Basha VicariEmail author
  • Oliver Wölfel
  • Agnieszka Althaber
  • Manfred Antoni
  • Bernhard Christoph
  • Katrin Drasch
  • Florian Janik
  • Ralf Künster
  • Marie-Christine Laible
  • Kathrin Leuze
  • Britta Matthes
  • Michael Ruland
  • Benjamin Schulz
  • Annette Trahms
Chapter
Part of the Edition ZfE book series (EZFE, volume 3)

Abstract

The adult stage (Stage 8) of the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) focuses on the adult working age population in Germany and serves, in many respects, as a capstone for the NEPS structure. Its main purpose is to collect data from Starting Cohort 6 (SC6, adults) on adult education, specifically on formal, nonformal, and informal further training; on competence endowment and its development over the life course; and on monetary and nonmonetary returns to initial and adult education in a life-course perspective. The data include a large number of theoretically derived determinants of adult education and competencies, as well as information on returns within and outside of the labor market. Detailed information on the learning environments at a workplace or in a household makes it possible to contextualize the returns to education. On the one hand, the SC6 data contain detailed retrospective information on education, labor market participation, and households; on the other hand, they provide yearly panel information from currently ten waves (as of May 2018). These rich data allow numerous analyses from a life-course perspective pertaining to sociological, economic, psychological, and developmental theories.

Keywords

Adult education Further training Competence development Life-course Labor market Panel study 

Schlüsselwörter

Erwachsenenbildung Weiterbildung Kompetenzentwicklung Lebensverlauf Arbeitsmarkt Panelstudie 

Zusammenfassung

Die Erwachsenenetappe (Etappe 8) des Nationalen Bildungspanels bildet, mit dem Fokus auf die Population von Erwachsenen im erwerbsfähigen Alter, in vielerlei Hinsicht den Schlussstein der gesamten Erhebungsstruktur des Nationalen Bildungspanels. In dieser Etappe werden Daten der „Startkohorte 6“ (SC6, Erwachsene) gesammelt, welche insbesondere Informationen zu formalen, non-formalen und informellen Weiterbildungsaktivitäten, zur Entwicklung von Kompetenzen im Erwachsenenalter und zu monetären und nicht-monetären Bildungserträgen von Schul- und Erstausbildung sowie Weiterbildung über den Lebensverlauf liefern. Die SC6-Daten beinhalten eine Vielzahl theoretisch abgeleiteter Determinanten zur Erklärung von Weiterbildungsverhalten, von Kompetenzen sowie von spezifischen Erträgen innerhalb und außerhalb des Arbeitsmarktes. Diese Determinanten sowie das Weiterbildungsverhalten, die Kompetenzen und die Bildungserträge selbst können durch zusätzlich erhobene Informationen zu Lernumwelten am Arbeitsplatz und im privaten Haushalt kontextualisiert werden. Die SC6-Daten beinhalten sowohl retrospektiv erhobene detaillierte Bildungs-, Arbeitsmarkt- und Haushaltsinformationen, als auch jährlich aufgesetzte Panelepisoden aus mittlerweile zehn Wellen (Stand: Mai 2018), die zahlreiche Analysen der soziologischen, ökonomischen, psychologischen und erziehungswissenschaftlichen Theorien über verschiedene Lebensphasen hinweg ermöglichen.

References

  1. Aisenbrey, S., & Fasang, A. (2017). The interplay of work and family trajectories over the life course: Germany and the United States in comparison. American Journal of Sociology, 122, 1448–1484.Google Scholar
  2. Allmendinger, J., & Driesch, E. von den (2015). Bildung in Deutschland. Elf Mythen—elf Tatsachen. In R. Hoffmann & C. Bogedan (Eds.), Arbeit der Zukunft. Möglichkeiten nutzen—Grenzen setzen (pp. 37–51). Frankfurt a.M., Germany: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  3. Allmendinger, J., & Leibfried S. (2003). Education and the welfare state: The four worlds of competence production. European Journal of Social Policy, 13, 63–81.Google Scholar
  4. Antoni, M., Bachbauer, N., Eberle, J., & Vicari, B. (2018). NEPS-SC6-Erhebungsdaten verknüpft mit administrativen Daten des IAB (NEPS-SC6-ADIAB 7515) FDZ-Datenreport, 02/2018. Nürnberg, Germany.Google Scholar
  5. Antoni, M., Drasch, K., Kleinert, C., Matthes, B., Ruland, M., & Trahms, A. (2010). Working and learning in a changing world. Part I: Overview of the study - March 2011 (Second, updated version) FDZ Methodenreport 05/2010. Nürnberg, Germany: IAB.Google Scholar
  6. Arnold, K.-H., Lindner-Müller, C., & Riemann, R. (2012). Erfassung sozialer Kompetenz bei Kindern und Erwachsenen (NEPS Working Paper 7). Bamberg, Germany: Leibniz-Institut für Bildungsverläufe, Nationales Bildungspanel.Google Scholar
  7. Arrow, K. J. (1973). Higher education as a filter. Journal of Public Economics, 2, 193–216.Google Scholar
  8. Autor, D. H., Levy, F., & Murnane, R. J. (2003). The skill content of recent technological change: An empirical exploration. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 1279–1333.Google Scholar
  9. Bächmann, A.-C., & Gatermann, D. (2017). The duration of family-related employment interruptions: The role of occupational characteristics. Journal for Labour Market Research, 50, 143–160.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, U. (1986). Risikogesellschaft. Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne. Frankfurt a. M., Germany: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  11. Becker, G. S. (1964). Human capital. A theoretical and empirical analysis with special reference to education. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Becker, R., & Blossfeld, H. P. (2017). Entry of men into the labour market in West Germany and their career mobility (1945–2008). Journal for Labour Market Research, 50, 113–130.Google Scholar
  13. Biewen, M., & Tapalaga, M. (2017). Life-cycle educational choices in a system with early tracking and “second chance” options. Economics of Education Review, 56, 80–94.Google Scholar
  14. Blossfeld, P. N., Blossfeld, G. J., & Blossfeld, H.-P. (2015). Educational expansion and inequalities in educational opportunity: Long-term changes for East and West Germany. European Sociological Review, 31, 144–160.Google Scholar
  15. Boudon, R. (1974). Education, opportunity, und social inequality. Changing prospects in western society. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Braun, S. T., & Stuhler, J. (2018). The transmission of inequality across multiple generations: Testing recent theories with evidence from Germany. The Economic Journal, 128, 471–916.Google Scholar
  17. Breen, R., & Goldthorpe, J. H. (1997). Explaining educational differentials: Towards a formal rational action theory. Rationality and Society, 9, 275–305.Google Scholar
  18. Brehm, U., & Buchholz, S. (2014). Is there a wrong time for a right decision? The impact of the timing of first births and the spacing of second births on women’s careers. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, 26, 269–301.Google Scholar
  19. Brewer, M. B. (1988). A dual process model of impression formation. In T.-K. Srull & R. S. Wyer (Eds.), Advances in social cognition; Vol. 1. A dual process model of impression formation (pp. 1–36). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  20. Brzinsky-Fay, C., & Solga, H. (2016). Compressed, postponed, or disadvantaged? School-to-work-transition patterns and early occupational attainment in West Germany. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 46, 21–36.Google Scholar
  21. Buchholz, S., & Schier, A. (2015). New game, new chance? Social inequalities and upgrading secondary school qualifications in West Germany. European Sociological Review, 31, 603–615.Google Scholar
  22. Buchmann, M. (1989). The script of life in modern society: Entry into adulthood in a changing world. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Bukodi, E., Eibl, F., Buchholz, S., Marzadro, S., Minello, A., Wahler, S., & Schizzerotto, A. (2017). Linking the macro to the micro: A multidimensional approach to educational inequalities in four European countries. European Societies. Advance online publication. Google Scholar
  24. Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Damelang, A., Schulz, F., & Vicari, B. (2015). Institutionelle Eigenschaften von Berufen und ihr Einfluss auf berufliche Mobilität in Deutschland. Schmollers Jahrbuch, 135, 307–333.Google Scholar
  26. Dieckhoff, M. (2007). Does it work? The effect of continuing training on labour market outcomes: A comparative study of Germany, Denmark, and the United Kingdom. European Sociological Review, 23, 295–308.Google Scholar
  27. Dieckhoff, M., & Steiber, N. (2011). A re-assessment of common theoretical approaches to explain gender differences in continuing training participation. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49, s135–s157.Google Scholar
  28. Drasch, K., & Matthes, B. (2013). Improving retrospective life course data by combining modularized self-reports and event history calendars. Experiences from a large scale survey. Quality & Quantity, 47, 817–838.Google Scholar
  29. Drasch, K., Kleinert, C., Matthes, B., & Ruland, M. (2016). Why do we collect data on educational histories over the life course the way we do? Core questionnaire design decisions in starting cohort 6 adults. In H.-P. Blossfeld, J. von Maurice, M. Bayer, & J. Skopek (Eds.), Methodological Issues of Longitudinal Surveys (pp. 331–347). Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS.Google Scholar
  30. Dürnberger, A., Drasch, K., & Matthes, B. (2011). Kontextgestützte Abfrage in Retrospektiverhebungen. Ein kognitiver Pretest zu Erinnerungsprozessen bei Weiterbildungsereignissen. Methoden, Daten, Analysen, 5, 3–35.Google Scholar
  31. Ehlert, M. (2017). Who benefits from training courses in Germany? Monetary returns to non-formal further education on a segmented labour market. European Sociological Review. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
  32. Erikson, R., & Jonsson, J. O. (1996). Explaining class inequality in education: The Swedish case. In R. Erikson & J. O. Jonsson (Eds.), Can education be equalized? The Swedish case in comparative perspective (pp. 1–63). Oxford, England: Westview.Google Scholar
  33. Esser, H. (2001). Soziologie. Spezielle Grundlagen. Band 6: Sinn und Kultur. Frankfurt a. M., Germany: Campus.Google Scholar
  34. European Commission (2017). White paper on the future of Europe. Reflections and scenarios for the EU27 by 2025. Brussels, Belgium: Author.Google Scholar
  35. German Council of Economic Experts (2017). Annual Report 2017/18: Towards a Forward-Looking Economic Policy. Berlin, Germany: Author.Google Scholar
  36. Gerzer-Sass, A., Reupold, A., & Nußhart, C. (2006). LisU-Projekt Kompetenznachweis Lernen im sozialen Umfeld. München, Germany: Deutsches Jugendinstitut.Google Scholar
  37. Gigerenzer, G., Todd, P.M., & The ABC Research Group. (1999). Simple heuristics that make us smart. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gnambs, T. (2017). Human capital and reemployment success: The role of cognitive abilities and personality. Journal of Intelligence, 5, 9.Google Scholar
  39. Görlitz, K., & Rzepka, S. (2017). Regional training supply and employees’ training participation. The Annals of Regional Science, 59, 281–296.Google Scholar
  40. Green, D. A., & Riddell, W. C. (2003). Literacy and earnings: An investigation of the interaction of cognitive and non-cognitive attributes in earnings generation. Labour Economics, 10, 165–184.Google Scholar
  41. Hägglund, A. E., & Bächmann, A.-C. (2017). Fast lane or down the drain? Does the occupation held prior to unemployment shape the transition back to work? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 49, 32–46.Google Scholar
  42. Heinz, W. R. (2003). From work trajectories to negotiated careers: The contingent life-course. In T. M. Jeylan & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life-course (pp. 185–204). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  43. Hillmert, S., & Jacob, M. (2005). Institutionelle Strukturierung und inter-individuelle Variation. Zur Entwicklung herkunftsbezogener Ungleichheiten im Bildungsverlauf. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 57, 414–442.Google Scholar
  44. Hillmert, S., Künster, R., Spengemann, P., & Mayer, K. U. (2004). Projekt ‘Ausbildungs- und Berufsverläufe der Geburtskohorten 1964 und 1971 in Westdeutschland’. Dokumentationshand- buch. Berlin, Germany: Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung.Google Scholar
  45. Jacob, M. (2004). Mehrfachausbildung in Deutschland: Karriere, Collage, Kompensation? Wies- baden, Germany: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  46. Janik, F., Wölfel, O., & Trepesch, M. (2016) Measurement of further training activities in life-course studies. In H.-P. Blossfeld, J. von Maurice, M. Bayer, & J. Skopek (Eds.), Methodological Issues of Longitudinal Surveys (pp. 385–397). Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS.Google Scholar
  47. Jenkins, A., Vignoles, A., Wolf, A., & Galindo-Rueda, F. (2003). The determinants and labour market effects of lifelong learning. Applied Economics, 35, 1711–1721.Google Scholar
  48. Jusri, R., & Kleinert, C. (2018). Haben höher Gebildete mehr Sozialkapital? Ungleichheit im Zugang zu sozialen Netzwerkressourcen. Sozialer Fortschritt, 67, 249–268.Google Scholar
  49. Kirchhöfer, D. (2000). Informelles Lernen in alltäglichen Lebensführungen. Chance für berufliche Kompetenzentwicklung (QUEM-report 66). Berlin, Germany: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Qualifikations-Entwicklungs-Management, Geschäftsstelle der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Betriebliche Weiterbildungsforschung e. V.Google Scholar
  50. Kleinert, C. (2005). Unscharf: Was sind denn eigentlich berufliche Kompetenzen? IAB Forum, 2, 28–31.Google Scholar
  51. Kleinert, C., & Matthes, B. (2009). Data in the field of adult education and lifelong learning: Present situation, improvements and challenges (RatSWD Working Paper 91). Berlin, Germany: RatSWD.Google Scholar
  52. Kleinert, C., Matthes, B., Antoni, M., Drasch, K., Ruland, M., & Trahms, A. (2011). ALWA - New life course data for Germany. Schmollers Jahrbuch, 131, 625–634.Google Scholar
  53. Kohli, M. (1985). Die Institutionalisierung des Lebenslaufs. Historische Befunde und theoretische Argumente. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 37, 1–29.Google Scholar
  54. Kracke, N. (2016). Unterwertige Beschäftigung von AkademikerInnen in Deutschland: Die Einflussfaktoren Geschlecht, Migrationsstatus und Bildungsherkunft und deren Wechselwirkungen. Soziale Welt, 67, 177–204.Google Scholar
  55. Kracke, N., Reichelt, M., & Vicari, B. (2017). Wage losses due to overqualification: The role of formal degrees and occupational skills. Social Indicators Research. Advance online publication. Google Scholar
  56. Kramer, A., & Tamm, M. (2018). Does learning trigger learning throughout adulthood? Evidence from training participation of the employed population. Economics of Education Review, 62, 82–90.Google Scholar
  57. Kuckulenz, A. (2007). Studies on continuing vocational training in Germany (ZEW Economic Studies 37). Mannheim, Germany: Physica.Google Scholar
  58. Lauer, C., & Steiner, V. (2001). Germany. In C. Harmon, I. Walker, & N. Westergaard-Nielsen (Eds.), Education and earnings in Europe: A cross country analysis of the returns to education (pp. 102–128). Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  59. Matthes, B., Christoph, B., Janik, F., & Ruland, M. (2014). Collecting information on job tasks - an instrument to measure tasks required at the workplace in a multi-topic survey. Journal for Labour Market Research, 47, 273–297.Google Scholar
  60. Mayer, K. U. (1990). Lebensverläufe und sozialer Wandel: Anmerkungen zu einem Forschungspro- gramm. In K.-U. Mayer (Ed.), Lebensverläufe und sozialer Wandel (Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie: Sonderheft 31, 7–21). Opladen, Germany: Westdeutscher Verlag.Google Scholar
  61. Mayer, K. U. (2009). New directions in life-course research. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 493–514.Google Scholar
  62. Mayer, K. U., Grunow, D., & Nitsche, N. (2010). Mythos Flexibilisierung? Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 62, 369–402.Google Scholar
  63. Mayer, K. U., & Huinink, J. (1990). Age, period, and cohort in the study of the life-course. A comparison of classical A-P-C-Analyses with event history analyses or farewell to LEXIS? In.Google Scholar
  64. Mincer, J. (1974). Schooling, experience and earnings. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Minello, A., & Blossfeld, H.-P. (2016). From parents to children: The impact of mothers’ and fathers’ educational attainments on those of their sons and daughters in West Germany. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 38, 686–704.Google Scholar
  66. Modell, J., Furstenberg, F., & Hershberg, T. (1976). Social change and transitions to adulthood in historical perspective. Journal of Family History, 1, 7–32.Google Scholar
  67. Rosenbladt, B. von, & Bilger, F. (2008). Weiterbildungsverhalten in Deutschland. Band 1. Berichtssystem Weiterbildung und Adult Education Survey 2007. Bielefeld, Germany: Bertelsmann.Google Scholar
  68. Rüber, I. E., & Bol, T. (2017). Informal learning and labour market returns: Evidence from German panel data. European Sociological Review, 33, 765–778.Google Scholar
  69. Ruland, M., Drasch, K., Künster, R., Matthes, B., & Steinwede, A. (2016). Data-revision module - a beneficial tool to support autobiographical memory in life-course studies. In H.-P. Blossfeld, J. von Maurice, M. Bayer, & J. Skopek (Eds.), Methodological issues of longitudinal surveys (pp. 367–384). Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS.Google Scholar
  70. Rychen, D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (2003). A holistic model of competency. In D. S. Rychen & L. H. Salganik (Eds.), Key competencies for a successful life and a well-functioning society (pp. 41–62). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  71. Rzepka, S., & Tamm, M. (2016). Local employer competition and training of workers. Applied Economics, 48, 3307–3321.Google Scholar
  72. Scherer, S. (2005). Patterns of labour market entry—Long wait or career stability? Sociology, 31, 645–672.Google Scholar
  73. Shanahan, M. J. (2000). Pathways to adulthood in changing societies: Variability and mechanisms in the life-course perspective. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 667–692.Google Scholar
  74. Shavit, Y., & Müller, W. (Eds.). (1998). From school to work: A comparative study of educational qualifications and occupational destinations. Oxford, England: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  75. Simon, H. A. (1993). Homo rationalis. Die Vernunft im menschlichen Leben. Frankfurt, Germany: Campus.Google Scholar
  76. Söhn, J. (2016). Back to school in a new country? The educational participation of adult immigrants in a life-course perspective. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 17, 193–214.Google Scholar
  77. Spence, M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87, 355–374.Google Scholar
  78. Struffolino, E., Studer, M., & Fasang, A. E. (2016). Gender, education, and family life courses in East and West Germany: Insights from new sequence analysis techniques. Advances in Life Course Research, 29, 66–79.Google Scholar
  79. Thurow, L. C. (1975). Generating inequality. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  80. Trahms, A., Matthes, B., & Ruland, M. (2016). Collecting life-course data in a panel design. Why and how we use proactive dependent interviewing. In H.-P. Blossfeld, J. von Maurice, M. Bayer, & J. Skopek (Eds.), Methodological issues of longitudinal surveys (pp. 367–384). Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS.Google Scholar
  81. Tyler, J. H. (2004). Basic skills and the earnings of dropouts. Economics of Education Review, 23, 221–235.Google Scholar
  82. Weiss, F., & Schindler, S. (2017). EMI in Germany: Qualitative differentiation in a tracked education system. American Behavioral Scientist, 61, 74–93.Google Scholar
  83. Wölfel, O., Christoph, B., Kleinert, C., & Heineck, G. (2011). Grundkompetenzen von Erwachsenen: Gelernt ist gelernt? IAB-Kurzbericht 05/2011. Nürnberg, Germany.Google Scholar
  84. Wolter, F., & Schiener, J. (2009). Einkommenseffekte beruflicher Weiterbildung. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 61, 90–117.Google Scholar
  85. Zapf, W. (1991). The role of innovation in modernization theory. International Review of Sociology New Series, 3, 83–94.Google Scholar
  86. Zimmermann, O., & Konietzka, D. (2018). Social disparities in destandardization: Changing family life course patterns in seven European countries. European Sociological Review, 34, 64–78.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jutta Allmendinger
    • 1
  • Corinna Kleinert
    • 2
  • Reinhard Pollak
    • 3
    Email author
  • Basha Vicari
    • 4
    Email author
  • Oliver Wölfel
    • 4
  • Agnieszka Althaber
    • 1
  • Manfred Antoni
    • 4
  • Bernhard Christoph
    • 4
  • Katrin Drasch
    • 5
  • Florian Janik
    • 6
  • Ralf Künster
    • 1
  • Marie-Christine Laible
    • 4
  • Kathrin Leuze
    • 7
  • Britta Matthes
    • 4
  • Michael Ruland
    • 8
  • Benjamin Schulz
    • 1
  • Annette Trahms
    • 4
  1. 1.WZB Berlin Social Science CenterBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Leibniz Institute for Educational TrajectoriesBambergGermany
  3. 3.WZB Berlin Social Science Center and Freie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Institute for Employment Research (IAB) of the German Federal Employment Agency (BA)NürnbergGermany
  5. 5.Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  6. 6.Oberbürgermeister der Stadt ErlangenErlangenGermany
  7. 7.Friedrich-Schiller Universität JenaJenaGermany
  8. 8.infas Institut für angewandte Sozialwissenschaft GmbHBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations