The development of internal combustion engines is a very demanding task, which requires a deep understanding of thermodynamic processes and their influencing factors. The complexity and extensiveness, which has to be mastered, is additionally enhanced by constantly increasing requirements in terms of emissions, engine efficiency, performance and drivability as well as the introduction of new technologies like water injection and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or test methods like real driving emissions (RDE). Shortened product life cycles and thus significantly reduced development times  moreover require time-saving processes in the development of new as well as the optimization of existing powertrain concepts.
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