Work, Time, and Social Participation. Policy Options for Dealing with Labor Market Precariousness (1999)
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In modern capitalist market societies and their welfare states, it is the labor contract that governs both the share of individuals in the outcomes of production (their income) and their positioning into places within the system of the division of labor (their status). Being employed is central both in normative as well as economic terms, as employment is the principal form in which people obtain their share in the product as well as the way in which this product comes into being in the first place. In modern capitalist societies, the main link between a person’s role in production and her/his position in distribution is made through the labor contract. Contractual labor is a historically rather recent type of activity that is contingent upon a “free” agreement between employer and employee (and as such terminable by either side), is typically rewarded in monetary wages, is categorized into occupations, takes place in enterprises (at any rate outside the worker’s household), and is embedded in the triple regulatory framework of organizational hierarchies, collective agreements, and statutory rules.
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