All lambda 1 gasoline powertrains
The introduction of new emission legislations in Europe (EU6d-TEMP) and China (CN6b) increases the pressure on the automotive industry to develop new and better exhaust gas aftertreatment and combustion systems. The fulfilment of PN and NOx targets in real world driving scenarios and increasingly electrified powertrains have led to the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) and enlarged catalytic converters. Now, on top of these major upgrades, the monitoring of CO emissions according to Real Driving Emissions (RDE) legislation puts a potential ban on high load enrichment for thermal component protection into focus. Hence, new technologies which enable Lambda 1 operation in the entire map of a gasoline engine are urgently required. This paper presents technology packages for component protection at high load stoichiometric operation as well as operational strategies for ultra-low CO emissions in all real driving scenarios. Assessed solutions span from base engine modifications to water injection and vehicle cooling concepts as well as to control functions. Favorable combinations are identified taking into consideration costs and realistic integration in ongoing vehicle programs.
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